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(Hi$_ Contribution to San^ltrit Literature) 

Dr. Smt. Mudigonda Uma Devi 

M.A., Ph.D. 

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(A Doctoral Thesis In English) 

Or. Smt* Mudigonda Uma Devi 

M, A., Ph.D. 

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After the completion of my MA. In Sanskrit from Osma- 
nla University, I registered for Fh.D In Sanskrit Department 
on a topic "Paikuriki Somanatiia's contribution to Sanskrit 
Literature withi special reference to Somanatha Bliasliyam 
Comparing witli siddiisnts Stkhamani ' 

After a hectic, strenuous and laborious research process 
of 5 years i submitted my thesis and got my degree In 
1984. Now I am Publishing this book ss the first publica« 
tlQrj ef "Base Qangotrf." 

I am grateful to Qsmania University, Sanskrit Depart? 
rnant my Deep Gratitude to my guide. Learned Scholar, 
Profeitor B. R. Shastd. Teiugu University Hyderabad has 
rend«rdci financial assUtance (6400/«) end given Initlatlvd 
to start this printing. His Holiness Sri Sri Sri Shiva Murthy 
Shivacharya (Taralabaiu JagadgurU; Sirigere) and Her Holi- 
ness Matha IVIahadevi of Bangalore, Siva Sri B. D. JattI 
former Vice President of India have sent their kind blessings 
which have ben included in this book I am grateful to them. 

Number ef veerasalvaites have offered their contribu- 
tions for this publication as a pre-publication help. The list 
of doners is included at the end of the book. My humble 
saranams to them. 

My special regards to Sri Parvathappa Korwar who 
is a source ef perennial inspiration. I would Like to express 
my appreciation to Chy. B. Udaya Shankar, Chaltanya 

f hettaraphlcs. who has designed and printed the title, end 
Chy. Jedadishwar of "Veera saiva Vent", a Kayakavrathi who 
helped me a lot in this publication. I am thankful to 
Sri 9, Srinlvas, Sri Lakshmi Venkateswara Fewer Press, Hyd- 
erabad, far their Timely Printing. 

Phenetic Symbols are not used due to soma practical 
printing problems. Few un avoidable printing mistakes are 
also appeared here and there. They will be rectified in 
second Edition. The relevance of lord Basaveswara's Prea> 
chlngs Is much higher than ever before. Hope This work 
will serve a neble cause of propagating Veerasalva Dharma 
in this Tumultous world. 

24th January 1990 


2-2-647/1 32/ B, 
Contra! Esclae Colony, 
Hyderabad - 600 013. 

Sri Taralabalu Jagadguru Bruhanmath 

SIRiGERE-577 641 

Chltradurgs Olst.. Karanataka (INDIA) 


dear Dr. Shivaprasad, 

I am glad td kndw that ths research stutitlea diS 
PALKURIKE S0MANA7HA by yeur wife. Dr. M. UmadevI, 
is being published in English. Being a housewife, she has 
done a commendable wori( In addition ta her lieusehold 

Palkurike Somanatha, the autiier of &ASAVA FURA- 
NAMU in Teiugu, who lived during 13th century, ia highly 

praised by Veerashalva Kannada posts in iheir writings. 
His Influence en both Teiugu and Kannada poets is indispu- 
tgb'e. The Kannada poet, Bhaemskav;, who wrote Basava 
Pura.r>a in Kannada during I44h Centaiy has been greatly 
infiusncedl by Somaratha and has openiy aclinowledged 
his indebtedness to \he faVet. Many poets have gone to 
the extent of euicglsing him as a rriessengsr of Shiva sent 
on earth for propagating Veerasnaivism. 

Unfortuna'aiy, Somsnatha lilce any tsher indian poet 
has not revssled much about his personal life In his worlds. 
As such, many controversies prevail In this regard. I hope 
that Dr. Umadavi's thesis wis! shad much light on the life 
and worlcs of this great Veerashlva poet. Her research 
woric published in English would definitely attract the 
attention of serious readers of Veera^ha'va religious litera- 
ture across the country. Dr. Umadevi deserves all 
admiration for this painstaldng research wark. 


16th December 1989 

Sri Taralabalu Jagadgnrti 
Dr. Sbifamorthy Sbiracbarya Mahaswamiji 

Jagadguru fVlata Mahadevi 

S'i Dr. Umadevi, tA Bhivsprasads. 

Many histty blessings from Matajl, 

I am extremely happy to know that you have complated 
your doctrate on Palkurike Semanatha, the great Telugu 

Shivakavi Pafkurtke Somanatha is a great star in the 
firmament of Telugu Language. He has immottalizad not 
only the Language in which he has written, but his own 
self by writing a gseat literary epic on the Ufe of the great 
saint-Basaveswara. Many real historical facts about Basave- 
swara's life are available in Falkurike Somanatha's Telugu 
Basavapuranam than in any other Kannada epica. The great- 
ness of palkurike Somanatha lies in inspiring the Kannada 
peot Bheemakavi who translated the Telugu Basava Puranam 
lnt« Kannada.. Sri Somanatha, Panchabhasha visharada is 
■a much dedicated to Basaveswara that he thinks the ialtsr 


praJssd tv Veerjshaiva Kannada poets in their writings. 
His ir.f'uenc3 en fa 3th Telugu and Kannada poeis is indispu- 
tab 9. The Kannada p39l. Bh8em£!<av;, who wrote Baseva 
Pursna in Kinnads dur-ng 14ih Century has been greatly 
influenced by Sonrisfetha eid has openEy acknowledged 
his indebted-.ess to the la^er. IVIsnv poefs have gone to 
the extent of eu'xeieing hinr 3S a messengej of Shiva sent 
on earth for propsgating ^-'eerasr.eivism. 

Unfortuma'sly, Somsnatha Hi<e any tthei indian pcet 
has not r9v53'ed much about his persons! life in his works. 
As such, many con.roversies prevail In this regard. I hope 
that Dr Umadavi's thesis ywii! shed much light on the life 
and worlcs of this graat Vaerashlva poet. Her research 
work published in English would definitely attract the 
attention of serious readers of Veerasha^va religious litera- 
ture across the country. Dr. Umadevi deserves ail 
admiration for this painstaidng research wsrk. 


16th December 1989 

Sri Taralabaia Jagadgurtl 
Dr. Shivamttrthy Sbivacbarya Mahaswamiji 

Jagad^uru {VTata Mahadevi 

S'i Dr. Umadsvi, M Shivsprasade. 

Many hearty biessings from Mataj!, 

I am extremely happy to know that you have completed 
your doctrate on Palkurika Semanatha, the great Tefugu 

Shivaksvi Palicurike Somanatha is a great star in the 
firmamant of Teiugu Lartguage. He has immortaHzad not 
only the Language In which he has written, but his own 
self by writing a g:eat literary epic on the life of the great 
saint-Basaveswara. Many real historical facts about Basave< 
awara's life are available in Palkurike Somanatha's Teiugu 
Basavapuranam than in any other Kannada epica. The great- 
ness of palkurike Somanatha lies in inspiring the Kannada 
peot Bhaemakavi who tiansiated the Teiugu Basava Puranam 
lnt« Kannada.. Sri Somanatha, Panchabhasha visharada la 
«9 much dedicated to Basaveswara that h« thlnka the latter 

as his heart and sou!; anc' praises Basavejwara in all those 
five Languaees. 

It is a metter --• ;*:.i: s^^e! aCaction that the holy 
Samadhi of Sri Soma'^i*?.. :. n ;'-..: a taka thus malcing the 
poet 'the treasure or botn A»;d*.'i a^d Karnatak.' 

Your effort and Succes& '* 'hs resesrch on shivalcavi 
Paial(url(e Somanatha is to bs sppraciated. Dr. Mudlgonda 
Shivaprasada and yourse!; sra doing memorable service 
In the field of literature and reS^Gion. 

Whole heartedly I biesa you to contribute many more 
valuable wtrlcs to the field of religion and Literature. 

Her Heiineis Jagadguru l\/iata MahadevI 

Kudala Sangama 

224, Ramana Maharshi Road 
BANGALORE - 560 080 
Phone : 349999 

Date : 9-12-1989 

Dear Dr. Urns Shivaprasad, 

1 understand that you have done Doctorate 
en palakuraki somanatha in English. Perhaps 
Palakuraki Somanatha was the first poet to writa 
•Basava Purana' in Telugu. Later on Bhima Kavi 
wrote 'Basava Purana' in Kannada based on it. 
The book you are going to publish regarding 
Palakurki Samanatha in English will be very 
much useful for all those not know Telugu, 
I hope that your book will be received well by 
all the readers interested in knowing the life 
and the writings of Somanatha. 

With bast Wished, 

tduts gifideraiy 

^^ ^*S&^ "^ 2S® '^^^^^^'QSS^Sy^^ 











i. Somanatha - HIa Life 


Birth Place 


The Era of Somanatha 


Somanatha and Malllkarjuna Pandito 




Parenta and Childhood 


Pinal Salvation 


II. Minor Worka 


Hamaakara Gad?a ote. 




Vrlahadhaipa Sataka 


Budra Bhaahya 


ill. VIra Salvism 






Asta Varanaa 


Shath Sthala 


The Philosophy 


Saivism In Andhra 


iV. Somanatha Bhashya 94 

V. Somanath Bhashya and Siddhanta SikhamanI 125 

Vi. Somanatha Bhashya A Critical Study 153 

VII. Somanatha's Scholarship 187 

God Accordlrrg to Somanatha 200 

Vyakarana 204 

IVIani Pravaia 205 

IMusIc 208 

Blbliog'aphy 811 

Salva "Pari Bhasha" 217 

a)ldieaiBd U ike 
fend ^nCemnfif of mii ^aikei* 

Late Sivasri B. V. S. Row 


Chapter 1 

Somanatha - His Life 

Hietorieal Eviden&e 

The main historical evidence for determining the date of 
Semanatha, remains his literary worlcs and the worlcs of his 
disciples lil<e Pidaparti Somanatha, and others. A conte- 
mporary of Pidaparti Somanatha, Siddha Linga Kavl or 
Tontadarya, Wrote the life histcy of Pall<urilti Somanatha in 
Kannada, known as "Palkuriki Someswara Purana." The 
Kannada worl( can be talcen as an authorised evidence, as it 
does not contradict the writings and incidents of Haiicurikl. 
Ekamranatha, belonging to ICth or 15th A.D., another Tel- 
ugu writer wrote in Teiugu, "Ekamranatha Caritaro," a work 
on the life of the rulers of Kakatiya Kings of Warangal. In 
this work also, ha mentions Palkuriki. This information can 
be taken as an Important evidence as far as it does not con- 
tradict the other evidences availabls. Besides these, many 
Andhra and Karnaiaka poets who wrate Stutis and praised 
him in their works are a source of information about the date 
of Somanatha. 

Pidaparti Somanatha lived nearly therae hundred years 
after Palkuriki Somanatha. His ancestors Sivaratri Koppayya 
and others took the Saiva Diksa from Somanatha and became 
his disciples. Somanatha arranged fot the grant of the vill- 
ages Dokiparru and Pidaparru to his disciples from the Kaka- 
tiya kings, the rulers who were also his faithful followers. 
This Pidaparti family regarded Somanatha as their "Kula 
Ouru" and so besides Somanatha's works, tliair work^ st^nd 

Z Smt. M. amacfev/ 

8S an authentic standard evidence for the life of Pallcurlkl. 
Among Ilia wr'ters of this famllv, PidapartI Nimmanarya and 
gasava Kavi, his son PidapartI Somanatha and his nephew 
Sasavappa were famous PidapartI Somanatha translated 
the "Dwipada Basavapurana" of Palkuriki Into a Padya 
Kavya. So tha introductory chapters of his works also give 
UB information about our author In his introductory chapter 
Pidaparti Somanatha mentioned about the works of Palkuriki.* 
Among these, Anubhavasara, Panditaradhya Carltha are his 
works in Teiugu, and Somanatha Bhasya Is his work in San- 
skrit. Besides these works there are other Works like Sata- 
kas, Ragadas and works belonging to a particular type of 
literature known as "Udaharana" literature. His Basavoda- 
harana is first of its kind. 

Somanatha's Birthplace 

Somanatha was an Andhra- This is very clearly subs- 
tantiated in his Teiugu poetry works. This Kavisekhara was 
born in a small village nan^ed palkuriki which was about 
twenty miles from the then capital orugallu or Warangal of the 
Kakatlya kings. At present it is in Nalgonda district and 
Jangaon taluk. The name has finally come to be known as 
palkurthi at present. But during the time of Somanatha, it 
was known as Palkuriki only. This Is evident from his works. , 
Pidaparti Somanatha also mentions it as Paikuriki. ^ Another 

♦Pidaparti Somanatha's Basavapurana Granthavtarika. 
Basava Purandar Panditharathyula Charithambu 

Nanubhava Sarambu, Caturveda sara sukritulu, Somanatha 

Bhashyamu, Rudrabhashyamu. Basava ragada,.... 

Sadguru Ragada. Chenna maliu sisamuiu 

\. in his Teiugu works Basa/apurana and Panditharadhya 
Carita he irientioned it as Palkuriki only 

2. Introductory chapter of Pidaparti Somanatha's Padys Bas- 
ava Purana. 

Ptilkuf/kl Soimnatht % 

writer and disciple of Somanatha whoss narre is not clearly 
knovjn, mentions it as Peltturiiti in his work "Anysvada KoU 

The remote villaee of fh\kwM, which later on became 
famous as place where Somanatha was born. It wae origin 
nally a Saiva l(shetra during the time of the Kakatiyas. There 
was a Siva temple on the hill in this village. 
Somanatha's ancestors were presumed to be arcskas of this 
temple, probably Somanatha was named after this deity. 
The belief is prevalent that he was born as a result of tha 
boon conferred by tha Lord Someswara. In Andhra the vill- 
age names were normally adopted as the family names. 
Hence Somanatha acquired the name of "Paikuriki Somana- 
tha" Palkuriki being his birthplace. 

Dr. Chilukuri Narayana rao holds a different view that, 
this palkuriki is in Mysore state. Tlie Halkurike of Tumkur 
district may have undergone certain changes and finally 
became Palkuriki. 3 Because according to him, the name 
Palkuriki is nowhere seen in the list of names listed in the 
government records. But the name "l-ialkureke" as the vill- 
age name is listed in the records of Karnatic government. 
Further as Telugu "Pa" is pronounced as "Ha" in Kannada 
and villages ending with Kuriki (as in palkuriki) were known 
to be in the borders of Andhra and Karnataka and not in the 
interior Andhra region, on tha basis of this reasoning. 
Dr. Chilukuri Narayana rao feels that Somanatha belongs only 
to Karnataka and not the Andhra region. But we cannot 
take into consideration the village lists alone 
and neglect the other factors. The Palakurthi given in 
the list of Nizam govermnt is still referred as palakurfki by 
some of the local people. The "Somanatha Devalaya" still 

3. New edition of Panditaradhya Charita published jn Andhra 
grantha IViaiika. 

4 Smt. M. OmatfBvt 

exists and the lord !s worshipped by many people. Many 
people who say that they belong to the dynasty of Somana- 
tha are still found livinq around this village. Thsv are the 
"Arcakas" of the Someswara temple even to th's day. The 
"Kurt!" was referred to as Kuriki only, previously. Further 
there are "Sasana Pramanas" or inscriptions to prove it. 
The villages like Elakurti, UrukurtI whick are near PalakurtI 
were referred to as elakurlkl, Urukuriki In the 12th and 13th 
centuries inscripiions ^ "Rendusarlu Elakurikl Prassnna Visw- 
eswara Devaraku samarpincinandula viniyoganu bhoganu 

"Sri chaunda sainyapati raravlndutaram 
grama samagra pa .. nnurukurki sanjnam.", 

The village DokipartI, which Somanatha helped his disciples 
to receiva as "Dana" and Kottakuru the village of his guru 
Kottakurt! Potidevara are nearby. 

Besides these points, PIdapartI Somanatha in his work 
mentions that when the king KakatI prataparudra came to f he 
Swayambhu temple in Orugallu, he saw come people reading 
Basavaourana of Somanaths when he asks them to explain. 
Some Brshmins told him that this "Dwipada" work was wri- 
tten by "Soma Patita" and abuse Somanatha Hearing this 
Somanatha came to the capital of Kakatlyas i e. warangal and 
argued with his opponents and won his case and was hono- 
ured by Prataparudra. This could have been possible only 
if, had Somanatha staved very close to Warangal and not If he 
had stayed somewhere in distant Karnataka. we do not find 
any such incidents that are connected to Somanatha anywhe- 
4 The Dharma Sagara Inscription laid by Kakati Rudradeva 

(4fh line, 12, 13, 14 lines) (Teluau inscription). 
6, The Kendiparthi inscription of Kakati Ganapatideva. (AD 

^.^^.^^ -_-» ,j_ oe An i«„„»\ Tolannnna in«sr.rintIon). 

falKuriKI i)omanauia 

re around Halkuriki. Dr. Chilukuri narsyanrao could not 
sh«w even one such incident in support of his views. Also 
in thai period and in that area there were no Telugu speaking 
people ezcept a few traders who came to Karnataka. Among 
all the works of Somanatha which are available, there is not 
even one single work which is completely in Kannada langu- 
age. Even the other Karnataka poets do not seem to menti- 
on any such work. Then the question arises why the Kama- 
tic poets showered praises on Somanaiha. It may be only 
due to the reason that Paikuriki wrote many Ragadas, Stavas. 
and Besava Purana which all deal with the greai Virasalva 
reviver of Karnataka i e. Basaveswara. So Kannada Virasaiva 
poets may have praised Somanatha so lavishly. 

This new theory of Dr. Narayanrao was refuted by Sii 
Virabhadra Sarma in "Vibhuti."^ It was also criticised by Sri 
Seshadrl Ramana Kavi in the essay "Basavapurana tatkruti 

In Ekamranatha's "Pratapacaritra" also, some manusert- 
pts of Basava Purana it is written as "Paiakurti" and Palakurti 
Somanatha," in Tontadaraya's Someswara Purana it Is written 
that Somanatha was born in the north eastern direction to 
Srisallam. According to the legend, his parents prayed to 
the Lord Someswara in Kolanupaka near Palakurti and a child 
was born to them- So they named him Somanatha after 
the Lord Someswara. Pidaparti Somanatha, a contemporary 
of Tontadarya also mentions in his workg that this place is 
very near to Orugallu, the capital of the Kakatiyas. This is 
evident from Ekamranatha's "Pratapa caritra" also. Karnata- 
ka poet, historian, Sri Narasimhacharl also feels in the same 

6. Vibhuti Samputi 2 and Sanchika 1. 

7. Vibhuti Samputi 4 and Sanchika 1. 

8. Padya Basava Purana Avatarika. 

4 Smt. M, UmadBVl 

exists and the lord Is worshipped by many people. Many 
people who say that they belong to the dynasty of Somana- 
tha are still found livinq around this village. Thev are the 
"Areakas" of the Someswara temple even to this day. The 
"Kurt!" was referred to as KurikI only, previously. Further 
there are "Sasana Pramanas" or Inscriptions to prove it. 
The villages like Elakurti, Urukurti wMck are near PalakurtI 
were referred to as eiakuriki, UrukurikI in the 12th and 13th 
centuries inscriptions « "Rendusariu Eiakuriki Prasanna Vi8W< 
eswara Devaraku samarpincinanduia viniyoganu bhoganu 

"Sri chaunda sainyapatf raravindutaram 
grama samagra pa .. nnurukurki sanjnam."j 

The village DokipartI, which Somanatha helped his disciples 
to receive as "Dana" and Kottakuru the village of his guru 
KottskurtI Potidevara are nearby. 

Besides these points, PidapartI Somanatha in his work 
mentions that when the king Kakati prataparudra came to fhe 
Swayambhu temple in Orugallu. he saw some people reading 
Basavaourana of Somanaths when he asks them to explain. 
Some Brahmins told him that this "Dwipada" work was wri- 
tten by "Soma Patita" and abuse Somanatha Hearing this 
Somanatha came to tha capital of Kakatiyas i e. warangal and 
argued with his opponents and won his case and was hono- 
ured by Prataparudra. This could have been possible only 
if, had Somanatha stayed very close to Warangal and not if he 
had staved somewhere In distant Karnataka. we do not find 
any such incidents that are connected to Somanatha anywhe- 
4 The Dharma Sagara inscription laid by Kakati Rudradeva 

(4fh line, 12, 13, 14 lines) (Teluau inscription). 
B, The K«ndiparthi inscription of Kakati Ganapatideva. (AD 
1 136) eastern side 36-40 Unas). Telangana Inscription). 

re around Halkuriki. Dr. Chilukuri narayanrao could not 
Shaw even one such incident in support of his views. Also 
In thai period and in that area there were no Telugu speaking 
people ezcept a few traders who came to Karnataka. Among 
all the works of Somanatha which are available, there is not 
even one single work which is completely in Kannada langu- 
age. Even the other Karnataka poets do not seem to menti- 
on any such work. Then the question arises why the Karna- 
tlc poets showered praises on Somanaiha. It may be only 
due to the reason that Palkuriki wrote many Ragadas, Stavas, 
and Besava Purana which ail deal with the greai VIrasalva 
reviver of Karnataka i e. Basaveswara. So Kannada Virasaiva 
poets may have praised Somanatha so lavishly. 

This new theory of Dr. Narayanrao was refuted by Sri 
Virabhadra Sarma in "Vibhuti.''^ It was also criticised by Sri 
Seshadri Ramana Kavi In the essay "Basavapurana tatkruti 

In Ekamranatha's "Pratapacaritra" also, some manuserl* 
pts of Basava Purana it is written as "Palakurti" and Palakurti 
Somanatha," In Tontadaraya's Someswara Purana it is written 
that Somanatha was born in the north eestern direction to 
Srisallam. According to the legend, his parents prayed ts 
the Lord Someswara In Kolanupaka near Palakurti and a child 
was born to them' So they named him Somanatha after 
the Lord Someswara. Pidaparti Somanatha. a contemporary 
of Tontadarya also mentions in his workg that this place U 
very near to Orugaliu, the capital of the Kakatiyas. This ift 
evident from Ekamranatha's "Pratapa caritra" also. Karnata> 
ka poet« historian, Sri Narasimhachari also feels in the same 

e. Vibhuti SamputI 2 and Sanchika 1 . 

7. Vibhuti SamputI 4 and Sanchika 1 . 

8, Padya Basava Purana Avatariks. 

way, Mr. Rice also mentions In his "Kanarese Literature, 
that Somanatha belongs to a place near river Godavarf. 

Taking all these above points into consideration there 
seem to be no doubt that Palkuriki Somanatha definitely bel- 
ongs to Andhra region and not to the Kamatska region as 
mentioned by some of the scholars like Dr. Narayana Rao. 
Somanatha's Vamasa and Gotra 

Different scholars give different opinions regarding the 
Vamsa and Gotra and Caste oi Somanatha. 

According to Sri Bandaru Tammayya, the famous Virasa- 
iva critic who wrote many books on Somanatha and did a 
thorough research on this subject in Telugu, asserts that Sa- 
manatha belongs to the Jangama or Archaka Vamsa,^ Accor- 
ding to him in the Siva temples of Andhra. the archakas were 
generally Siva dwijas or Hara dwijas. But in some Salva 
kshetras the Virasaiva Jangsmas alone served as Arcakas. 
Even Srisailam also belongs to the fourth Virasaiva Pancacar- 
ya pitha I e. the Panditaradhya Peatham only. The same 
Jangamas were only the arcakas ef the Someswara Swayam- 
bhu temple at Palkuriki for generations. According to Vira* 
laiva scholars there were five Acaryas for Virasaiva Matha. 
They were supposed to have come from the five faces of 
Lord Siva, and have taken different names fn differnt names 
In different yugas, to establfsh Virasaiva Matha. They 
were supposed to be the gotra kartas of the Virasaiva 
religion, according to Supfabodha a 

d. "Palakurtiki Somanatha" by Bandaru Tammayya, Pages 

10> Sadyojataca Prathamo Vamadevo Dwitiyakah aghorasca 
tatpurusasca caturthakah isanah pancamasceti mukhani 
mama sarvasah tanyanananl gotrani vedoktani na samayah 
viro nandi bhringa vrisasca skanda evaea matswarupat 
Itmut pannah panca gotradhi karinah. 

t^aiKuriKi somanatna 

The first names of these religious preachers were Vira, 
namesNandl, Bhringi, Vdsa and Si<anda Their Kaliyuga 
are Revana Siddha, l\^arula Siddha, Ekorama, Pandita- 
radhya and Viswaradhya. At present their pithas are at 
Bambhapuri in Mysore, Ujjaini in Bsllary, Himavatl<edara, 
Srisaiam, and Kasi, The first names of these preachers i.e. 
Vira, Nandi, Bhringi, Vrisa and SIcanda were consideredas 
the gotranamas to the Virasaiva Jangamas. Because tnere 
is a belief that these five gotra icartas have issued from the 
five faces of the Lord Siva, The Virasaivaites believe that 
they belong to iswara Kula or Siva t(ula. According to Som- 
anatha also indicates that he belongs to Siva icula and Bhrin, 
gfrita gotra. In his first book Anubhavasara in Telugu jj Even 
In his other Teiugu work Basavapurana he mentions his mot- 
her is Parvati and father is Siva.^j 

According to Sri Bandatu Tammayya even today the su- 
ccesiors of Palkuriki feel that they belong to Bhrlngirita go- 
tra and to Ekoramacarya Pitha. Such gotras belong only to 
Virasaivaites and is not found among the Saiva Brahmins or 
Aradhyas who have the names of rishis as their gotra 

Sri Tammayya further tries to prove his statement by sqi^ 
ying that Somanathan insulted other Brahmins who did not 
have Lingadharana, so he must be only a Virasaiva Jangami 
and not an Aradhya Brahmin.,4 

11. bhringiritagotrudanu, gurulinga tanunjunda. siv kulinuda 
durvyasanga sanga vivarjitenda jangama lings prasada 

12. Dharanumamata Pitarudra. p.25, PalkurkI Somanetha 
by Bandaru Tammayya ef 1966 edition. 

13. p.25. Palkuriki Somanatha by Bandaru Tammayya of 
1966 edition. 

14. Ibid. 

8 Smt. M. Umadevi 

Kandukurl Vlresalingam mentions him as only as Vlr- 
asaivaite and does not mention anything about his caste 
whether he is a Jangama or Aradhya Brahmln.^j 

This statement of Banda'u Tammayya was refuted by 
Sri Kasinadhuni Nageswar rao in his foreward to Vrisadhipa 
Satal<amu.jg According to IVIr. Nageswar rao, Somanatha 
who is well versed in all the four Vedas, Sastras can never 
be a non-Brahmin and the comment that he was a Patlta 
Brahmana as mentioned in Pidaparti Somanatha's "Padya 
Basava Purana" only Indicates his Brahminism. He feels 
that Somanatha was an aradhya Brahmin in the early stages 
of his life but later on due to the Influence of Basaveswara 
of Karnatka he became a Jangama, discarding his Brahminism. 
That is the reason why he sa/s in his work "Anubhavasara" 
that he belongs to Bhringi rita gotra. Further, IVIr. Nages. 
wara rao feels that eventne Saiva Aradhya Brahmins during 
the time of Siva Puja are mentioning these gotra kartas. 
Therefore, It does not mean that Somanatha was not a Brah- 
min by birth. 

Further, the famous scholar and critic Sri Veturi Prabha* 
kara Sastry also refutes the statment of Sri Tammayya with 
tije following points ^^ 

1. In those days Vedas, Sastras, etc. which were not 
studied by non-brahmins, were thoroughly criticised 
by Somanatha- 

2. Somanatha himself mentions that non-brahmins are 
not allowed ro read Vedas and shows proofs in his 
Sanskrit work "Somanatha Bhasya." 

16. Andhra Kavuia Charitra, new edition by K. Vlresalingam. 

16. published by K. Nageswar rao in 1826. 

M, Biiava purana prsttavana, publithed in 1929. 

Palkuriki Somanatha y 

3. Many Andhra and Karnataka poets refer to Somana- 
tha with the Aradhya nan-.e only. 

All ths non-Aradhyas whom Somanatha criticises in his 
Basava Purana cannot be attributed to his personal opinion 
and perhaps remains as the opinion of the characters in his 
worlc. The same author praises the Brahmins in his woric 
Panditaradhya Caritra. Because Basaveswara did not appre- 
ciate the principles of Brahminism, it is written as such in 
Basava Purana. Sri Veturi Prabhakara Sastry feels that Vir- 
asaivism was founded by none other than Basaveswara and 
that there is no evidence for the existence of this religion 
before Basaveswara. Also that the Saivacaryas like Renuka 
were the contemporaries of Basaveswara. 

But this theory may not be correct because Saivism is 
one of the oldest religions of India and we have the traces 
of this religion even in the Harappa and Mohenjodaro civili- 
zations.j^a The name Harappa itsaif suggests it is connected 
with Hara or Load Siva. Virasaivism is one of the ten bran, 
ches of Saivism according to Karana Agama.jg 

it may be concluded that in this connection the word 
"Pdtita Brahmana" as mentioned in Pidaparti Somanatha's 
Padya Basave Purana, one need not apply to his fall from 
Brahminism but to his literary technique. It was Somanatha 
who started the dwipada kavyas in "Oasi" trend. Probably 
the learned people who were used to the Marga trend in 
poetry did not appreciate his literary prakriya and abused him 

17a. Sri Basaveswara a commemoration volume^page 327. 

Published in 1967 by Government of Mysore. 
]8. adou samanya saivantu purva saivam dwitiyakam misra 

saivam trutiyantu suddha saivam caturthakam pancamam 

srauti saivantu sastantu marga saivanca saptamam vir« 

uivakhyat navamam parikirtitam. 

^(j amt. M. Umadevi 

as "Patita Brahmana" Here Patita applies to his litetature 
and not to his caste. 

Again in his Telugu woric Panditaradhya Caritra, he ma- 
Ices an Aradhya Brahmin Surana as the listener to his workj, 
and there he addresses the latter as his dear friend and bro- 

Sri Tammayya feels that they cannot belone to the same 
Aradhya sect even though Somanatha addresses him as "de- 
ar brother-in-law" in his work because in those days, accor- 
ding to Tammayya the "prathama gotra sutra" were applicab- 
le to Virasaivaites and "Rsi gotra sutras" to Aradhya Brahmi- 
ns. But he feels that at the same time marriage alliance v^as 
possible between rhe Aradhya brahmins and Virasaivaite non- 
Brahmins.20 But if wa abser/e the gradual mental change 
and outlook in Somanatha, it is quite clear and evidant that 
Somanatha was well versed in all Srutis, Smritis, Furanas 
along with the Vedangas and gave much importance to the 
Brahmins in his early work like Panditaradhya Caritra, he 
gradually came under the influence of Basaveswara, the Vir- 
aslva reviver and then discards his aradhya brahminiam and 
criticises brahmins in his other works like Basava purna as 
"malas" etc. The same scholar again shows his well versed 
scholarship in his analytical approach of Somanatha bhasya. 
This clearly indicates that Somanatha was definitely an Ara.- 
dhya Brahmin by birth who had relationship with Palkuriki 
Surana of "Harithasa gotra" and Apasthamba Sutra. He 
addresses the latter as his dear brother-in-law and friend. 

' 19. necceli kadavu nivaniyu maccika na muddu maridi ni 
vanlyu araleni sakhuda surarya na muddu marldl vinmldi 
matiima prakaranamu. 
10. Foreword to Basava Purana" by Bandaru Tammayyt, 
Biaw 42-44. 

PalKurikl Samanatna 41) 

Here friend means that a friend in the ordinary SMS®6ut 
prabably a dear friend among all his relatives as both of 
them belonged to the sam3 village Palakurti. Thus he is 
not only a brother-in-law but a dear f'iend too. 

Considering all these facts, it can be concluded fhat 
Somanatha was sn aradhya Brahmin who was Influenced by 
Basavesoara's Idealogy aid who sta'ted the "Desi" trend in 
his literature thus becoming a "patita brahmin" in the eyes 
of orthodax scholars who did not appreciate this new trend 
of dwipada l<;avyas and who followed only marga trend in 

Tha era of Somanatha 

There Is much controvetay regarding the exact period 
to which Somanatha belonged. Many scholars have expre- 
ssed diverse opinions regarding the time of Somanatha. Ac- 
cording to some, he was placed in the later part of 12th ce- 
ntury and lived upto earlier part of 13th century. According 
to others he belonged to the laler part of thirteenth century 
to early fourteenth century. 

The best evidence is his own worl« which give much 
information. Among all his works, his Telugu works Basa- 
va purana and Panditaradhya Carlthra are very important. 
These two describe the life of two famous religious preache^ 
rs who lived in the middle centuries. Basa/a purana descri^ 
bes the life and activitiea of Basaveswara who was prime 
minister of Kalachuri Bijja'a, who ruled over Kalyana Kataka 
between 1157-1167 A.D. Paaditaradhya Carithra deals with 
the life of Mallikarjuna Pandita, a contemporary of Basaves^ 
wara. So Somanatha, the writer of these two works must 
be either a contemporary of these two or must belong to a 
later period. Purther Somanatha in these two works has 
mentioned his own contemporaries and also about the chil" 
ciren of Mallikarjuna Pandita. 

^2 Smt M. UmadevJ 


There are three ways of kno^A/ing the exact ege of any 
poet: (1) internal evidence (from his books). (2) External 
evidence, (a) From inscription etc. (b) Other poets or 
scholars who mention him. 

(1) Internal evidence 

The internal evidence is taken from Somanatha's works 
itself. As mentioned earlier, Somanatha wrote about the 
life and preachings of Basaveswara in his Basava Purana 
and states that he has written these incidents from the reso- 
urces he heard from other people 21 Now the question aris- 
es who is "Basaveswara?" 

Basaveswara was the Prime Minister in the court of Ka- 
lachuri Bijjala who ruled Kalyana Kataka. Bijjala in turn was 
originally a subordinate officer in the court of Tailapa III of 
Chalukya d> nasty who was defeated and captured and later 
released by Proia of Kakatiya dynasty. This is clearly known 
from the Hanumakonda inscription.,. According to this, 
Prola was the second Prola, the ton of Tribhuvana Malta of 
Beta Raja who ruled between 1116-1158 A.D. He was a Su- 
bordinate to the Chalukyas and when their power declined he 
became an independent king. He captured Tailapa of Chal- 
ukya dynasty and then released him. Hanumakonda inscrip- 
tion is written on Chitrabhanu samvatsara, Magha Suddha 
Vaddavaram Saka Samvatsara 1084 i.e., 1 162 A.D. 

21. prasthutimpaga sadbhaktl visphuranam bhastuti kekkina 
basawani charita cheppltl bhaktulace vinnamadkim dap- 
pakundaganu dasaktijesi. 

£2. calukya cudamani sasvadyuddha nibaddha gahvaramatim 
yuddhe babhande kshanat srimattailapa devamambudha 
nibhastambheda mastaksanat prakhyato ripu khanta 

khandana vidhou bhakta yanu ragoujjahouj Hanuma* 

Iconda Sasana Irnea 28. 28. 30. 

Pafkuriki Somanatha 13 

Therefore ft is evident that Bijjala and Basaveswara. 
Tailapa and Proia were contemporaries. The date of Basave- 
ewara is further proved by the Arjunawada inscription.jj 
The Sangama Basava mtntionad in this inscription is none 
other than Basaveswara. This is the evidence from 
Karnatal<a inscription to prove the date of Basava. This 
inscription was put forth in the year Saica Samvatsara 1182 
siddharti nama Samvatsara Chaitra Bahula Amavasya Somav- 
ara by the people of Chavunasetti who were the subordina- 
tes of Kannara deva of yadavavamsa. So the year is approx- 
imately 1260 A.D. 

As history depicts the Calulcyas of Kalayan were ruling 
the Karnatal<a region from 972 A.D.. BIjjala was the IVIaha- 
mandaleswara of Tarawadi since 1136 A.D.^^ When Taiia 
ascended the throne in 1151 A.D., he manipulated in order 
to be the Mhahpradhana at Kalyan reducing King Taila III to 
a non«entity. Thus Basaveswara who undoubtedly the pri- 
me minister ot Bijjala also belongs to the same i.e. 1100- 
1170 A.D. 

Somanatha himself has declared that he has written his 
Telugu work Basavaputana on the basis of what he heard 
from others. The stories about Basava must belong to a 
much later time to the Virasaiva religious reformer Basaves- 
wara. So we can place him after Basaveswara only. 

Samanafha and IVIalliitariuna Pandita 

Somanatha in his other work "Panditaradhya Carita" 
described the life and activities of Malliicarjuna Pandita. 
who is this Pandita? He is the author of the famous work 

23. Mangta kitti puratana jangama iingaika bhakti nirbhara 
Ufa sanga sangana bosavam sangatiyam malake bhaktly- 

tA Tamhii inftRrintion. Hera Stone at K R I. Dharwar. 


There are three ways of knowing the exact age of any 
poet: (1) Internal evidence (from his books). (2) External 
evidence, (a) From inscription etc. (b) Other poets or 
scholars who mention him. 

(1) Internal evidence 

The internal evidence is taken from Somanatha's works 
itself. As mentioned earlier. Somanatha wrote about the 
life and preachings of Basaveswara in his Basava Purana 
and states that he has wriiten these incidents from the reso- 
urces he heard from other people ^i Now the question aris- 
es who is "Basaveswara?" 

Basaveswara was the Prime Minister in the court of Ka- 
lachuri Bijjala who ruled Kalyana Kataka. BIjjala in turn was 
originally a subordinate officer in the court of Tailapa lit of 
Chalukya dynasty who was defeated and captured and later 
released by Proia of Kakatiya dynasty. This is clearly known 
from the Hanumakonda inscription.jg According to this, 
Frola was the second Prola, the son of Tribhuvana Malla of 
Beta Raja who ruled between 1115-1168 A.D. He was a Su- 
bordinate to the Chalukyas and when their power declined he 
became an independent king, He captured Tailapa of Chal- 
ukya dynasty and then released him. Hanumakonda inscrip- 
tion is written on Chltrabhanu samvatsara. Magha Suddha 
Vaddavaram Sake Samvatsara 1084 i.e., 1 162 A.D. 

21. prasthutimpaga sadbhakti visphuranam bhastuti kekkina 
basawani charita cheppiti bhaktulace vinnamadkim dap- 
pakundaganu dasaktijesi. 

22. calukya cudamani sasvadyuddha nibaddha gahvaramatim 
yuddhe babhande kshanat srimattailapa devamambudha 
nibhastambheda mastaksanat prakhyato ripu khanta 
khandana vidhou bhakta yanu ragoujjahouj.— Hanuma- 
tondi Siiina Irnai 28, 28, 30, 

PalkwIkI Sotnanatfm 1!i 

Therefore tt is evident that Sijjala and Basaveswara, 
Tailaps and Prola were contemporaries. The dale of Basave- 
swara is further proved by the Arjunawada inecription.jj 
The Sangama Basava m'^ntioned in this inscription is none 
other than Basaveswara. This is the evidence from 
Karnataica inscription to prove the date of Basava. This 
inscription was put forth in the year Sai<a Samvatsara 1182 
siddharti nama Samvatsara Chaitra Bahula Amavasya Somav- 
ara by the people of Chavunasetti who were the subordina" 
tes of Kannara deva of yadavavamsa. So the year is approx- 
imately 1260 A.D. 

As history depicts the Calukyas of Kalayan were ruling 
the Karnataka region from 972 A.O., Bijjala was the Maha- 
mandaleswara of Tarawadi since 1136 A.D.24 When Taila 
ascended the throne in 1151 A.D., he manipulated in order 
to be the Mhahpradhana at Kalyan reducing King Taila Hi to 
a non^entity. Thus Basaveswara who undoubtedly the pri- 
me minister ot Bijjala also belongs to the same i.e. 11 00- 
1170 A.D. 

Somanatha himself has declared that he has written his 
Telugu work Basavaputana on the basis of what he heard 
from others. The stories about Basava must belong to a 
much later time to the Virasaiva religious reformer Basaves- 
wara. So we can place him after Basaveswara only. 

Samanatha and Maliikarluna Pandita 

Somanatha in his other work "Panditaradhya Carita" 
described the life and activities of Mailikarjuna Pandita. 
who is this Pandita? He is the author of the famous work 

23. Mangia kitti puratana jangama lingalka bhakti nirbhara 
life sanga sangana bosavam sangatiyam malake bhaktly- 

24. Tambu inscrlDtton. Hera Stone at K R I. Dharwar. 

t4 Bmt. M. Umad@vl 

on Salvism "Sivatatva Sara." He can decide the period of 
tliis writer from tlie acconnts written by the contemporaries, 
kings and certain historical incidents whicli were described 
in Panditaradhya Caritra by Somanatha. 

At tlie time of Malfikarjuna Pandita, tlie Valanati Cliolas 
ruled tlie coastal Andlira region with Candavole as thir capi- 
tal When Pandita went to Candavole for religious preech'- 
Ing Valanati Coda was ruling the kingdonr), Pandita was 
insulted by the Ra;a guru who was a Bouddha. In anger 
his disciples killed the Bouddha guru. When the king came 
to know about this he called Pandita and punished him by 
removing his eyes. Pandita cursed the king '^that he would 
be destroyed. As a result of that curse the king developed 
a peculiar ulcer which could not be cured by any medicine. 
He sent his ministers to Pandita to beg forgiveness. He 
refused to do so. Then pandita recited an "Astaka" in the 
name of Amareswara d«ie to which he got internal eye sight 
or "Urdhva Locanas." Then he proceeded towards Karnat- 
aka to meet Basaveswara. But when ha was in a disciple's 
house at Vdnipura, a person came from Karnataka and infor< 
med that Basaveswara had obtained "Lingaikya" eight days 

The above incident reveals that iVIallikarjuna Pandita 
was a contemporary of Velanati Choda, Brjjala of Kalyana 
and his prime minister Basaveswara. 
Time of Valanati Choda 

in the 12th century A.D., coastal Andhra was ruled by 
the Veianti Choda kings. They were not independent kings. 
They were subordinates to the Calukya emperor. Their ca- 

25 Basava dand nayakudu niccamaina sangamesu garbh- 
ambu jocche dshamutone codyamoppar a*ni damuda na- 
tiki nenimidi dinamulu nikkamanucunu. — Panditara- 
dhya Caritham. 

fiaikurtkl Bomanatha 31® 

pital waa Candayole which Is in Guntur district in Andhra 
Pradesh. In this dynasty there were two kings with the 
name Choda. The first Choda ruled from 1 1 1 5 A D. to 1 1 36 
A.D. His grandson was the second Choda. He ruled from 
t163A.D. toliSOA.O. He was also known as VelanatI 
Rajendra Choda. The second Choda was a contemporary to 
Bijjala and Basaveswara.,g So Maliikarjuna Pandita must 
have come to Candavole during his rule. This king might 
have ruled upto 1180 A D. as we do not find any of his inc- 
riptions after that period Ha had a son by name Gonka. 
We do not know definitely whether this parson ruled the 
kingdom or not. But there are inscriptions stating that his 
grandson ruled the kingdom. But we do not find of his in- 
scriptions in coastal Andhra region except in Katings where 
he was in power. So it is evident that the velanati Chedas 
lost power In eoastal Andhra by 1189 A.D. It is certain that 
the king who was cursed by par.ditaradhya was none other 
thanVelanti Choda 11. In that case Pandita must have gone 
to Candavole between 1163-1180 A.D. Therefore it Is clear 
that both Basaveswara and Panditaradhya were contempora- 
ries and lived in a period between H 63 1180 A D. So Pai- 
kuriki Somanatha who belonged to a much later period must 
have lived after 1180 A D., I e, nearly after the early 13th 

Somanatha and liis contemporaries 

PIdaparti Somanatha in his "Fadya Basava Purana/'j^ 
mentions that in orugailu, when some devotees were reading 
the Basavapurana of palkuriki, the Kakatiya king Pra'aparudra 
happened to come there. 

26. His last inscription is date 1180 found in the temple of 
Draksharama Bhimeswara (Are 413 of 1193 S 11 IV 

87. Padya Basava Purana, 1st Chap , pages 28-29. 

iQ Smt. M. Omad»vll 

AQCOrding to Sri Veturi Prabhakara Sastry. this Prathpa- 
rudra was not the one who was defeated by the muslim rul- 
ers but was the Rudradeva who ruled the kingdom in 1198 
A D So Pidaparti might have mentioned him as Pratapatud- 
ra j3 He further feels that Somanatha and Pandlta were co- 
ntemporaries. According to him Somanatha wrote his Bas- 
avapurana from whet he heard from other devotees. In the 
poem given below Karasthali Somanathawas a disciple of 
Pandita. This parson was a contemporary of Palkuriki Som- 
anatha Somanatha discussed with him about these stories 
of Basava Purana. So he must be later than 1190 A D. and 
that Is in Rudradeva'S reign. ^9 

But according to Sri Komarraju Lakshmana rao the wri- 
ter of Panditaradhya Charltra I.e. Somanatha belongs to the 
period of Mallikarjuna Pandita's great great grandson. His 
date is between the end of 12th century and early 13th cen- 
tury A D.30 

Sri Bandaru Tammayya throws altogether a different 
light on this subject by saying that Koiani Ganapatideva 
who lived a century aft«r second pratapsrudra, mentioned 
Somanatha In his "SIvayogasara" Thg Karnataka poet Bhim- 
akavl of A D. 1369 translated Palkuriki's work into Kannada, 
Srinatha in 1398 A D. wrote a Padyakavya known as Pandi- 
taradhya Charitra based on the Panditharadhya Charltra of 
Somanatha If Somanatha belonged to the period of Prata- 
parudra II rhen It would not be possible to write works bas- 
ed on his works within such a short period. Prataparudra 
11 is dated 1290 A D.-1326 A D. So, it is reasonable to pl- 
ace Somanatha with Prataparudra I and not the 11 I.e., 
1160-1240 A.0.3, 

28. Foreword of Basavapurana, pages 6-7. 

29 Ibid., pages 5-6. 

30, Foreword to Sivatatvasara, pages 11-19. 

31. Palkuriki Sornanatha Kavi by Bandaru Tammayya. 

Palkuriki Sotnanatha 17 

Sri Nidadavolu Venkatarao want one step forward and 
stated that queen Rudrama of Kakatiya dynasty ruled the kin* 
gdom witii tlie name of Prataparudra. To her, minister 
SIvadevayya narrated the story of Basavapurana before 1260 
A.D. indicating that the Basavapurana of PIkuriki was aire* 
ady familiar by that time. 

But this theory was refuted by Sri Nelaturi Venkata 
Ramannyya who feels that Rudrama is known in history as 
Rudradeva and not as Prataparudra. According to the vario- 
us inscriptions of hers, she is presumed to have lived arou- 
nd 1261 A.D. So, she could not have ruled before that 
peiod. Though we consider that Basaveswara stories were 
told by SIvadevayya to her, these were not the original cre- 
ation of Somanatha because Somanatha himself declared 
that he has written the work from what he heard from other- 
devotees. What SIvadevayya related, need not have been 
the original work of Somanatha but the general stories prev- 
alent at that time. So the Prataparudra mentioned in ail 
these inscriptions ehd works cannot be RudramadevI of Ka- 
katirudra j^ He is the grandson of Rudramadevi and son of 
Mummadamma and ruled the Kakatiya kingdom between 
1295-1323 A.D. 

This statement agrees with Pidaparti Somanatha's Padya 
Basavapurana that whan some devotees were singing Basa- 
vapurana in a temple the king Prataparudra was present 

32. Somanathudeppativadu-by Nelatgri Venkata Ramanayya, 
pages 75-79. 

18 Smt. M. Umadevt 


Again PIdapartr Somanatha mentions in his work that 
Palkuriki asked his disciple Induluri Annamayva who was 
the minister of king Prataparudra to give some charity to 
some people who were his disciples. 

who is this Annamayya? 

Accordig to historians, Indulur! Annamayya lis the hus- 
band of Ruyyamma, the second daughter of queen Rudrama 
and was the uncle of Prataparudra who ascended the throne 
after Rudrama. He was a minister of Prataparudra. His in- 
scrptions are dated 1291 A,D. There is an inscription dated 
1294 A.D., in which it is stated that Induluri Annamayya 
gave donation to the Draksharsma BhimeswaraswamI at Dra- 
ksharamam 34 There Is another inscription in which a Dana 
Sasana of a subordinate has inscribed in the name of Indul- 
uri Annamayya Pragada in the year 1317 during the time of 
Prataparudra king 35 

Sri Maliampalli Somasekhara Sarma feels that this Ann- 
amayyy Pragada is the same Induluri Annamayya who was a 
minister in the court of Prataparudra. So in that case he is 
dated 1291 A.D..1317 A.D. 

So from the above points it is clear that all the histori- 
cal events described by PidapartI Somanatha regarding the 

33- A Pratapuni Rajadhani Yorugaliu. 

Okanadu Sivabhaktulorugantanu swayambhu devu m- 
antapamuna vasinchi basava puranambu patimchi vinu- 
vela, haruni golva bratapudacatakegi "adivini dusha 
kavula iu napuramsiu pratapudun." — PIdaparthI Soma- 
natha's Basavapurana 

34. SSI IV 1337, 

35. SSI V 110, 

Pdkuriki Somanatha IS 

life of Palakuriki coincides with vaMous inscriptions All of 
them coincide with the date of Prafaparudra and not Rudra- 
deva. It is evident that Somanatha lived during the time of 
Prafaparudra and not Rudradeva- 

Parents and Childhood 

In his first woric Anubhavatara Somanatha did not men- 
tion any particular name of his parents and says that he is 
"Gurulinga Tanuja." Bandaru Tammayya feels that this 
"Qurulinga" only refers to Lord Siva 3^ in his Basavapurs 
na Somanatha mentions that his father and mother were 
Vishnu Ramideva and Sriyadevi 3^ 

Tontadarya in his Someswara Purana, IVIentions that 
Somanatha belongs to Vemaradhya vamsa and his parents 
were Gurulinga and Mangalambika. But there is no histori- 
cal evidence to prove that they were his parents. 

Sri Tammayya seems to make a heroic effort to establish 
Somanatha among Jangamas by saying that the authtr was 
a born Jangama who lost his parents in his childhood and 
was brought up by Vishnu Rami deva and Sriyadevi with 
love and regard. But it should be not be forgotten that 
Somanatha was well versed in all the Vedas and Sastras whi- 
ch were not with in the reach of non* Brahmins. So he can 
never be a Jangama by birth and is only an Aradhya who 
was loved and respected by his parents. It is quite natural 
that a son like him who was a scholar, poet and well verted 
in Sastras will be the most liked one among the children for 
any parent. So Vishnu Ramideva and Sriyadevi are his own 

36. Preface of Basava purana, pages 45-46 by Bandaru 

C'7. Bhrajishnudagu Vishnu Rami devundu tejisnuvagu sriya- 
devi yammayu garavimpaga noppa gadili sutuuda. — Pre- 
face of Basava Purana by Bandaru Tanirngyya, page 4^, 

P.Q Smt M. Omail6Vl 

parents and he is not their adopted son but one of their swn. 

Though many names are mentioned as the teachers of 
Somanatha, He himself did not mention his guru's name 

Bandaru Tammayya feels that since Sominatha was a 
Jangama by birth, his g<jru also must be a Jangama Fithad- 

Somanatha mentions in his Basava Purana Avatarika 
that he was a disciple of Kattal<uri Potidevara. This Potid- 
evara's olace Kattakuri is very near to Palakuriki. 

In the introductory passages of his Panditaradhya Cari- 
tra, Somanatha mentions that ha was the disciple of grand- 
son of Baildeva Vemaradhya. But he did not mention the 
actual name of his guru. As described in the Puratana 
Prakarana of Panditaradhya Caritra it is clear that Balideva 
Vemaradhya must be an aradhya Brahmin or a Brahmin Sai- 
vaite. people belonging to this Vamsa are seen now also. 
Somanatha's literary guru was Karasthali Viswanatha. 

Somanath's Contemporaries 

In many of his works Somanatha seems to have related 
his stories to his friends Thus Godagi Trlourari was the 
listener of Anubhava Sara goburi Sanganamatya of Basava 
purana and Paikuriki Suranamatya of Panditaradhya Caritra, 
Among them Suranamatya was an officer in the court of 
Prataparudra II 33 But there are no relevant historical sour, 
ces to prove these facts and these men are only mentioned 
fn the works of other writers. The other famous men men- 
tioned by him are Karasthali Somanatha and Rentala Mallin- 
atha. He was a regular visitor to Srisailam which is clearly 

38. Mentioned in Ekamranatha's Prataparudra Caritra. 

Palkurlki Somanatha 21 

Indicated by his detaild description or \W\s mountain his wo- 
rk Panditaradhya Caritra. 

Somanatha was a "Aghora vira maheswara" which ha 
clearly mentioned in all his works. He was s staunch Saiv- 
alte who did not even touch the food prsparsd bv non-Salv- 
Ites, He did not tolerate even the Darsana, sparsa and con. 
versation with non-Saivaites. He was a staunch follower of 
Pancacaras of the Virasaivaites. 

Somanatha's final Salvation 

The presence of the samadhi at Palkuriki indicates that 
Somanatha led his last days m his native place and after his 
iingalkya a samadhi was constructed and a temple was made 
on It. inside this temple a linga and nandl are installed. 
This llnga ia known as Somanatha linga. 

But according to Pidaparti Somanatha's Basava Purana 
Avatarlka, Somanatha in his later life went to Karnataka and 
there in the village named Kaile near Sivaganga, made his 
samadhi and died. Probably, Pidaparti must have taken 
Tontadarya's Someswara Parana into consideration to make 
this statement. According to Tontadarya when Somanatha 
was living happily with his son and d'sciples at Palakurthi, 
a person came to him and told him that in the Kalie village, 
lived a chaste Saivaite iady by name Chennamma. Somana- 
tha wanted to meet her. So along with his son and disci- 
ples he left for Kalle. Chennamma was very happy to sea 
him and requested him to stay in her house for a month. 
He promised to do so. But before the completion of 
the month, due to the request of his disciples, he took perm- 
ission from Chennamma and started his return journey in a 
bullock cart. But the oxen did not move. Then the oniO' 
okers told him that the oxen did not m«ve because he diet 
net keep up his promise with Chennamma. Se Somanatha 

£2. smt. M. Umadevi 

got down from the cart and stayed in Chennamma's house. 
One night Lord Siva came in his dream and told him that he 
has come to take Somanatha to Kailasa. Somanatha paid 
respects to the Lord and said that he wouid leave his Sthuia 
Sarira in this world as SamadhI is the only solution to the 
mortal body and he would leave his body on the next solu- 
tion to the mortal body and he would leave his body on the 
next Monday. Lord Siva agreed to this and vanished. 

Next day Somanatha called his followers and told them 
that he would be leaving his bedy on the coming Monday. 
Hearing this all the Sivasaranas started gathering at Kalle. 
Somanatha then made a mantapa and wrote the Sadaksharl 
mantra tn It. He then dressed himself in pure clothes, gave 
vibhutl and Tambuie to the Saranas and then took the nirya- 
na diksha according to the Siva Siddhanta Tantrokta Vidhana 
and left the mortal body when evary one was uttering the 
Pancakhsari mantra. Then all the devotees placed vibhuti 
and fl0ral wreaths on his body and burried him in front of the 
Kaleswara temple accerding to his wiah. Then they constr* 
ucted a samadhI •n it with mantras. 

So we can conclude that the temple at Falakurthi was 
probably constructed by his devotees In that place where 
Somanatha used to do his tapes. The place where he attai 
ned lingaikys is still found in Karnataka. Here a matha beio* 
nging to the Srisaiia Simhasana still exists. The present 
head of tha matha has given this informatian to Sri Bandaru 
Tammyya on the tatter's request, in that matha there is a 
lamadhi besides their predecessor's samadhis. And this ia 
supposed to be of Palkurfki Somanatha. So this supports 
Tsntadarya't statement that Somanatha spent his last days 
•t Kallf . 

Chapter II 

Somanatha's Minor Works 

Palkuriki Somanatha's literary genius is msny-sided. 
He Is equally proficient in sight languages (Astabiiasa visar- 
ada). The spread of Saivism v/as iiis chief aim and hs gai- 
ned his goal through literature. For this purpose the poet 
laurei created a vast variety of literature iil<e Puranas (Basa- 
va Purana) gadya, Ragada, Bhashya (Somanatha Bhashya 
and Rudra Bhashya), Udaharana poetry and so on. For the 
preaching of Saivrsm to the common man, he brought liter- 
rature to their level by writing some of his works in DesI 
style. He was a pioneer of Teiugu dwipada kavya and Uda- 
aharana type of literature. By creating these "Sahitya Pra- 
krlyas" Palkariki brought renaissance in Teiugu literature. 
At the same time to show his authenticltry and scholarship 
In Sanskrit, ha wrote Somanatha Bhashya, a work on Vira* 
aaiva principles and rituals. 

Palkuriki Somanatha's works are broadly divided into 
two categories. His major works and minor works. Vrisa" 
dhipa Sataka and Somanatha Bhasya are his major works, 

Somanatha's minor works can be divided into flva eaifi' 
gorles. They are gadya, ragada, udaharana, pancaka and 
Bstaka types. 

Among his gadya works, pancaprakara gadya, namas- 
kara gadya, Aksharanka gadya and Astotiara gadya are very 
prominent. Somanatha wrote the beginning and of thess 
gadyas in Sanskrit and rest in Talugu, Kannads ind Marsthi. 

24 Smt. M. Umadevi 

1. Panca Prakara Gadya 

The name itself Indicates that It consists of five types 
of aadya in it. In the beginning the author wrote the gad- 
ya in Sanskrit in praise of Basaveswara. But the other four 
parts are quite different from the first part. They are written 
according to the specific matras and ganas. In the first type 
of gadya there is no regularity of matra ganas. But In the 
second type there are sixteen caranas. Each carana is made 
of four ganas of four matras and is beautified with Sabdala 
I^aras ^ 

In the third type of gadya there are about thirty one 
caranas. Every carina consists of four ganas of four matras 
and there is antyanuprasa. 

jeya iaya niravadhi nirmala gatra 
jaya jaya durita latacaya datre 
jaya jaya fcevala bhakti kalatra 
lays jaya bhavatita caritra 

]aya jaya bhakta padambuja bhrlnga 

jaya jaya mangle mahimottunga deva basava 

The f surth type of gadya consits of twelve caranas each 
with two ganas of five matras. There is laghu niyama and 

jaya durita parlharana 

jaya sukrta paridarana 

jaya nlkrta ravi kirana 

Java sukavinuta kalita - jaya vikaca mukha lalita 

jaya vinaya naya miiita - .... deva basava 

1. ap'ca srivlbhava bhava pasotkarasatala vitra vitrasita 
fiiijjala dharanisa dharanlta prakararclta carana 

Paikuriki Somanams 2i> 

The fifth group consits o! sighJ caranas each with txo 
ganas of four matras and with antyaprasa for evary two car- 

jaya siva ranjana - jsya fchava bhanjana - 
jaya Icarunakara - jaya para bhikara - jaya ruta bhasana - 
jaya sruti posana - jaya guna rajita - jaya guna pujita 
jaya jaya sri basava danda natha namaste namaste namah 

II. Namaskara gadya 

This gadya bsgins with a praise for Sasavaswa^a in Sa- 
nskritj After this there are 118 padas with four matras in 
each pada. Every pada ends with a praise in Sanskrit caturthi 
vibhakti. That is why it Is known as namaskara gadya. 
Somanatha's antyaprasa is a!so found in these gadyas. So- 
manatha considered each pada as a flower and named these 
gadyas as Basava Astottara Kusuma. 

III. Aksharanka gadya 

Since the first letter of the first pada of every gadya 
starts in a alphabetical order, this gadya is known as Aksha- 
ranka gadya. 

apica sIva sringara om - adi pada vistara om 
iha para sukhadara om • Isana triya dura om 
uddhara gunopeta om - urdhva retajatata 0m 
rsabha namakhyata - rja mayatita om 

In this gadya In every pada there are two ganas of five 
matras and there is antyaprasa for every four padas. At the 
end the author sings the praise of Basaveswara as "sivakara 

2. sri kantodbhava veda codita iasadvira.... 
.... sakshacchtvrisabhadipansa basavadhlsaya tasmay 

smt M. Omada^) 

sri basava dandanatha om namaste namaste namah" and then 
finally wrote "akaradi shakaranta makarodasha malika prasa- 
d! somanathakhyo basavasya krupanidheh. 

Then with all the vowels he made one slokaamita yasa- 
ska adyayana idruci, iswara urjita krama rsabhanka rijuhara 
Uhltha Ismita ekarudra aindra mahita rupa, omit! padadyuti 
aurvalalata ambica sanne rasa bhava, ah kafita varnanutam 
basavesa pahimam 

From there, taking each varga of consonants from ka 
to sha. he wrote thirty fjve slokas for the thirty five letters 
I.e. one si oka for one letter. 

All these slokas are in praise of Basaveswara only as 
Somanatha feels that Basaveswara Is a second Siva or Nan- 

4. Astottara Satanama gadya 

In this gadyg also the ganas and matras are just like in 
the namaskara gadya and panca prakara gadya. Tne name 
of the gadya itself suggests that there are 118 padas.j 

This gadya resembles mandanila ragada of Kannada lit* 
erature in Its characteristics. 

Basava Panoakam 

Pancakam means a collection of sive poems. Tha8« 
ara also known as Panca ratnas. It Is written in malini me- 
tra. The work begins with — 

8. Sri madguru basavesa namaste 
samaya bhava nirhasa namaste 
paripurna pratibhati namaste 
•urucita praoava jyoti namaste 

Palkuriki comana'cna 27 

priyatama siva bhakta - bindu nadanurakta 
ayamaya siva yukta - hara hira prsbhakta 
niyamita sakaianga - nllakanta prasdrga 
jayatu basava linga - sara mukti kriyanga 

in the end rhere is a sloka — 
srlmate vrisabliendraya somanatiiena dhlmata pance ratna 
midam stotram jnana vairagya biiaktadem 


Astakam means a collection of eight poems and this co- 
llection forms a stotra. Somanatha has written astakas. 
One In Telugu and tbe other in Sanskrit. The Sanskrit woric 
is known as Vrisabhastaka and is written in vasantatiiaka 

pakshindra vahana tapobaia sadraniya 

sarva swaroliaslta rupa samupeta punita druste 

sr! vajra sringa vrisabadhipate namaste^ 

palkuriki somam racfram vrisabhastakam yah 

•totram srunoti patatih viniscitartham 

so dhasu yati vrisabhadhipateh prasada 

ilabdhat visuddha pada bhakti phatadabhlstakam 

Trividha lingashtaicam 

Somanatha wro'e this work in Sanskrit about the three 
iingas i e. tstalinga, Pranalinga and Bhavalinga. These 
alokas are written in Anushtup metre. Each linga has eight 

pancakasam mahakasam pancacararn prakasitam 
panoaksharam mayakaram swestalinga mahambhaje 

Jivadharam sivadharam jnanadharam paratparam 
sarva vyapaka mantrartha pranalinga mshambhajs 

2B Smt. M. Umadevi 

In the end "Phalasruti" is summed up in one sloka. 

pandita somanathena krita lingastaka triyam 

yah patet satatam vidvan bhakti mukti phala pradam 


What is udaharana 

Udaharana is a part of literature or "sahitya prakriya" 
like kavya, nataka, purana etc. This type of literature was 
first produced in Sanskrit by Palkuriki Somartatha and was 
later followed by other writers like ^Vidyanatha. All the 
udaharana works available in Sanskrit, till now have been 
writren mostly by Telugu writers only. 

Udaherana is a laghu kavya consisting of 26 slokas, vi- 
bhaktis are given importance in this work. All the seven 
vibhaktis and sambodhana vibhakti are given prominence. 
Each vibhakti has three poems. The first one must be of 
one metre, the second poem must be of one Ragada, and the 
third must be an Artha ragada. That is if the second ragada 
has 16 trimatra ganas, the third should have enly 8 trimatra 
ganas. These ragadas and artha ragadas are produced in 
eight padas each. These four ragadas and four artha ragad^ 
as are commonly known as Kaiika and utkalika. 

After these there is ene sloka which is produced in all sev 
•n vibhaktis. This is known as Sarvavibhakti. In this there 
it no kaiika and utkalika. with this sloka. the Udaharana 
Kavya ends. 

Origin of Udaharana literature 

Candas is of two typas. ly/iarga cendaS and OesI cdn' 
dw. Marta eandas deals with the claisleai metres like Ar< 

Pdlkuriki Somanatfia 28 

78 mandakranta etc. wheress desi candas is regional or na- 
tive wfiicfi includes kirtanas, stotras etc. Marga candas is 
Gana candas depending on ganas wiiiie Desi candas dapen- 
ds on matras, ganas are niyata or fixed while matras are an- 
lyata or flexible. Desi candas is closely connected with rh- 
ythm or tatam. Desi candas inclvdes the ragadas from whi- 
ch the udaharana has originated. 

Ragadas are slokas with two padas like the dwipadas 
with Adiprasa and Antyaprasa. Udaharana is also a type of 
ragada only. The ragadas used In the udaharana kavya are 
known as kalikas, Kalika contains eight padas. So four 
ragadas In udaharana kavya make one kalika. If half the 
ganas are used then it becomes utkalika. 

Udaharana is mainly "Stuti Pradhana." So the slokas 
can be sung. The kalika and utkalia are "Taianga Pradh- 
ana." They must be sung in triputa, jampa, and rupaka 
talas only. 

Characteristics of udaharana 

All the udaharana kavyas available in Sanskrit contain 
the lakshanas which are characteristic of Telugu udaharana 
kavyas only and are written only by Telugu writers. To this 
class belongs Palkuriki Somanatha's Basavodaharana. So 
he is the first Sanskrit Udaharana writer. 

Amrltanandanatha, the author of Alamkara sangraha 
wrote the characteristics of Udaharana as follows ;- 

athodaharanayasu lakshnam kathyate adhuna 
kalpanlyani padyani saptavibhaktibhih, 
sambodhana tmakscante vibhaktisvastamo bhavet 
sakvari prabhrutani syuh cadanyasya yatha 
ruci ritih pradhana goudlya gatissyaddruta 
madhyama ojahprasada sabda syuh, sanuprasah 

30 Smt. M. UmadevI 

kvacih kvacit fatradyam malinivrittam jayetyadi 
samanvitam gadyatmaka dalanyastou pratyekam sa 
yatinica utkalika karya smastabdhi padatmika 
ante ca utkalika yuktayatyanuprasa sobhini 
calurthotkalikasyadve vibhaktya bhasalacita 
kalikotkaiikascasta navya tafa layanvitah 
pratipadayam bhavennetrunama tattatdvibhaktimat 

sarvesam padya mantesca kavi nayaka iachitam 

From the above passage we know the characterlstlce of 
udaharana. Seven slokas must be in seven vibhsktis. The 
metre or vritta must be sakvari. The first sloka must be in 
maiini metre with jaya sabda There must be eight "gadya- 
tmaka dalas" with yati. At the end there must be utkalika 
with eight padas in the form of one samasa. The katika 
and utkalika must be accordance with taia and laya. 
At the end of the kavya the name of the hero and the 
writer's name must be indicated. 

Vfdyanatha In his "Prataparudriya" says that the three 
qualities of udaharana kavya as follows. 

atha shudra prabandhah nirupyante ; 

yena kenapi talena gadya padya samanvitam 
jayatyapakramam malinyadi vicitram tadudaharenam 
nama vibhatyastakam samyutam. 

Kumaraswamy coommenting on this said : 
atha sudra prabandhesudaharana gadyaih kramena 
kalikotkalika paryaysih, vibhaktyabhyasakitaih, 
vakyaih padyam prati vakyamadou, tattadvakya 
samana vibhakti nayaka namamkita slokaisca 
samanvitam maiini nama vritta visesah 
"nanamayayayuteya maiini bhoqi lokaih" 

PalkurikI Somanatha 31 

atra lakshanasya nyunatvadvartamana padananca 
sankirnatvatvatdubhayam varayan vyacaste 

In the above passage instead of kalika the word gadya 
is used but kalika and utkalika or not gadyas but ragadas. 

Vatnana in iiis "Kavyalankara sutra vrltti" while discu- 
ssing tiie three types of gadyas said 

"anaviddha lalita pada curna tadviparita 
mutkalika prayam 

Gopendra tippabhupata commenting on this utkaiika in 
his kamadhenuvyakhya said : 

utkalika utkanda utkantotkafike same utkaiikayah 
prayah prayoga bahulyam yasminstat utkalika prayam 
gadyam yasminstu srotrunam utkanta bahuia 
bhavatityarthah yadva kalika sabdo tra Isshanaya 
ruhi ruhi kavyam vartate ullasamt! kalikam 
ruhikam prati prapnotityutkalika prayam yatra 
pada sandarbha pari pati kandopakanda sandena 
safini kalike noliasati tadutkalika prava mityrthah 

Thus kalika and utaklika are two forms of padya based 
on tala and laya. This kalika and utkalika lakshanas 
Indicate the ragada. Because Matraganas and talams belong 
to Regada. iCeeping Bharata in view in particular, Kumara- 
swami wrote "cancatputadino gadyaih kramena kalikotkalika 
paryathaih." So the gadya sabda Is another name for kalika 
and utkalika. 

Scholars are of the opinion that this type of literature 
that Is udaharana has existed from the very ancient times. 
Such types are seen in the Kuntapa suktas of Rigveda. 

Among the classical literature the famous poet Katidasa 
noQntioned such verses In Ragduvamsa and Vikramorvasiyq. 

U Smt M. Umadnvl 

In Rsghuvamsa it Is mentioned 8k, 
sarair;ut3avarn sanlcetanslcrtva viratotsavam 
Jayodaharanam bahvorgapayamasa kinneranj 

But we cannot say It is udaiiarana just on the basis that 
the word "Jayodaharana" is mentioned as it does not fulfil 
the other characteristics of this type of literature. It means 
only a jayokti for the reason there was no such literary trend 
or Sahityaprai<riya before Somanatha. The Sui(ta in Kuntapa 
Sulcta in Rigveda is oniy a Sulcta and not a udaharana. Ot- 
herwise it would have been well developed and we would 
have found many such poetic pieces by ,12th century. But 
we do not find even a single piece of such writing. Oniy 
Alamkarikas with Telugu scholarship mentioned-them. Tho 
ugh Somanatha and Amritananda belonged to the same cen- 
tury. Somanatha lived earlier than the latter. Studying this 
new type of iiterary work. Amritananda established its 
characteristics, i^e thought we could use candas like Sak- 
varya etc. and metres like malini and should start with 
"Jayatu" and so on. 

Somanatha srarted the work in malini but wrote all the 
rest in Sardula. Kulasekhara Alwar who is earlier than So- 
manatha wrote a sloka in Sarvavibhakti in his Mukundamala. 

krishno rakshatu no jagatrayam guruh 

krishnam namasyamyaham krishne namassatravo vinihitah 

krishnaya tasmai namah krishnadeva samutpitam 

jagadldam, krishnasya dasosmyaham 

krishne tistati sarvametadakhiiam 

he krisna rakshasva mam 

Somanatha is also a staunch devotee like Kulasekhara. 
His purpose in writing the aksharanka gadya is to indicate 

I Ra^dhuvamsQ by |<ali(|asa - 4th sarga, 78 sloka. 

Palkutlkl Somanatha 33 

that all the varnas and kriyas ultimately culminate in the 
Almighty. His aim In writing the Vrlsadhipa Sataka in 
different language sis to indicate the same Idea only, with 
this idea he wrote udaharana literature. After it Is fuiiy deve- 
loped It Is further subdivided Into saddali, paddall etc. 
Depending on udaharana type came the later varieties of 
literature like Bhogavali, Cakravali, etc. Somanatha is thus 
the mula purusha of this type of literature. 

Significance of Udaharana 

Udaharana is a symbolic gesture in pray tft the Almighty 
using so many vibhaktis. A true devotee feels that all his 
actions or kriyas are meant for worshipping God. So he 
performs all the actions in the name of God. Since the 
vibhaktis are connected to kriyas in a way the whole of uda- 
harana literature is meant for worshipping god. This is the 
significance of udaharana literature. Here the Almighty is 
worshipped and praised with all the vibhaktia indicating that 
god exists in ail the kriyas of human existence. The same 
idea in a way Is expressed by Sri Viswanatha Satyanarayana.^ 
The whole world Is in the form of kriyas or actions and all 
the kriyas uftimately reach God. Roots are always connec- 
ted to the kriyas. So when god is praised with all the vibh- 
aktia It Indicates that god is the base of all the kriyaa. This 
is the secret of udaharana literature, 


The text Basavodasharana mainly deals with Basaves- 
ware. Now the question arises who is Bssaveswara. 

Basaveswara was the prime minister of Bijjaia who was 

6. By Viswanatha Satyanarayana in the foreword to Udah- 
arana Vangmaya Carltra written by Nidgdavole Venkatrao^ 

94 Smt M. Umadt9l 

9 mahamandaleswara of Tarlawad! since 1136 A.D^ Basa* 
veswara was born at Ingaleswara Bagawadl.g now in the 
Bijapur district. I\^adiraia and IVIadalambe we e liis parents. 
Madiraja was the chief of BagawadI and is very often descri- 
bed aa "Puravardhiswara.", The manigavalli Inscriptiorj 
can be considered as an authentic source which gives infor- 
mation of Basaveawara as a pious and religious man. But 
this inscription describes Candiraja and Candrambiica as the 
real parents of Basaveswara. But this lacks authenticity aa 
great poets like Harihara and Somanatha clearly mention 
Madiraja and Madalamba as the parents of Basaveswara. 

So the most authentic source regarding Basaveswara is 
the A'junawada inscription which deacribes him as the son 
of Madiraja and Madalamba ,o This Madiraja was also 
known as Mandiga Madiraja ^^ 

According to the scholars. Madiraja and Madalamba 
were the devotees of Nandiswara. According to Basavapu- 
rena, Madalamba observed Nandivrata to have a son who 
could bring fame to the family. To fulfil her desire it is 
believed that Nandi himself was born to her as Basaveswara. 

Regarding the date of Basaveswara there is some cont- 

7. Tambu inscription. Hero stone at K.R.I. Dharwar. 

8. Palkuril<) Somanatha's Basavapurana, Bhimal<avi Basava- 

9. Arjunawada inscription E1-21, page 9. 

10. Madirajana tanujam. 

11. Palkuriki Somanatha - Basavapurana, p 11. 
Bhimakavf - Basavspurana, page 46. 
Singlraja - Singiraja Purana VI 24. 

Psikutlkl Somanatha 3S 

roversy. According to RC. Hiremath, the date is 1131 

But according to Lakkannadandadesa of Siva tatvaclnta. 
man! the date of birth Is In the month of Kartlkam of Siddh- 
artha Samvatsara which comet to A.D. 1139 November 7.,3 

Arjunawada inscription mentions the date of Hala Basa- 
vldeva as 1260 A.D. He is the fourth in the geneology.14 
at the rate of 25 years for a generation which is accepted by 
the historians 1 25 years have to be deducted to have the 
birth date of Basaveswara as 1260-125, about 1131 A.D. 

Regarding the month, Sivatattva Cintamanl mentioning 
Kartika while Singiraja Purana says Suciramasa. Vyasokta 
Samskrita Basavapurana gives some derails about this. This 
has been calculated as Valsakha stddha tritlya RohinI nash- 
atra. This finally comes to the fact that Basaveswara was 
born on Vaisakha tuddha tritlya in the year 1131 A.D. the 
nashatra being RohinI. ,j Acdording to Sri Badala Ramayya 

12. Sri Basaveswara Bibliography by K.C. Hiremath page 11. 
Sri Basaveswara, a Commemoration volume 1967 edition. 

13. Siddhartha Samvatsara kartika suddha poornaml.somav- 
arda madhya ratrl. 

14. Madiraja 


I 1 

devaraj Munipa Sangama Basava 

Kalideva ly^unipa 

Hala Basavideva 

38 Smt. M. Umadtvl 

who conducted a thorough research on Basaveswara the 
date of Basaveswara ia 21.nii40.,g 

From his childhood Basaveswara was a true devotes. 
when he was eight years old preparations for his thread 
ceremony were made. But he did not agree for this saying 
ths the need not have the yajnopavita which is a Brahmlnlcal 
rite. When forced he discarded the whole ceremony and 
left home thu$ severing his relations with his father and 

But according to Haiihara, one of the authentic blogr* 
aphles on Basaveswara, he lost his parents in childhood and 
W8S brought up by his grand mother who was a great Saiva 
devotee. The thread ceremony was over but at the age of 
16, Basaveswara discarded it end left home jg 

But Somanatha and the others do no'^ agree with ths 
view th»t Basaveswara did not undergo the thread ceiemony 
Stall. But all the scholars Including I4arihsra agree that 
Basaveswara left home for Kudala Sangama and definitely 
discarded the sacred thread at one stage. He left for Kud«ila 
Sengama as his inner urge was to find solace at the feet of 
Lord Siva. And it is here his inner self reached realization 

Kudala Sangama was a g'eat canire of Isarnirig. one of 
the Inscriptions found in this p!ace dated 1i 60 A D . descri- 
bes Kudala Sangama as a centte of learned brahmiiis iscnya 
guru was the Sthapati of this cantre and he niight have <niti- 

16. Basaveswara Vacanaiu-Sarrgraha samil<sha by Dr. Badala 

17. Palkuriici Somanatha Basava Puranamu I. 16 Bhimakavl 
Basava Purana ill, 43 si. 

18. Harihara's Basavaraja devara Rsgaie 11. 1-10 

rail\UIIM sjVHia llama 

ated Basaveswara. In the study of this Lore He must have 
studied a number of philosophical worl<s. 

l\/leanwhiie drastic events were taking place around 
him. His Maternal uncle Baladeva was a minister Ft Kalya- 
na.j9 He approved Basaveswara's discardipg the thread cere- 
mony in favour of Linga worshipjg and gave his daughter 
Gangambil(e in marriage to Basaveswara and then he might 
have stayed at Kudala Sangama around it 52 A.D., when 
Bljjala was ruiing at Mangalawada or Kaiyana ,j Accordrng 
to Singiraja, Basaveswara first joined Bijjalas office as a 
cle k and then rose to the position of Bhandari. iVeanwhile 
the poiiticsl situation at Kalyana changed* Taila III who succ- 
eeded Jegadeka MaUa in 11&1 a weak king. Bijjala became 
the I\4ahapr3dhsna to Taiia III in 1154 A.D. He was a stau- 
nch Saivaite and so he had full faith in Basaveswara Aftftr 
the death of Bafadeva, Basaveswara became minister of 
Bijjala in 1162 A.O.j^ when the latter became the emperor. 

i\/iaanwhile Prola of Orugallu revolted against Taila Hi 
and the latter who went to fight with Prola did not return to 
Kalyana. Bijjala at this juncture assumed the powers of the 
king and managed the affairs of the state skilfully. At this 
crucial moment Basaveswara became the minister, that is in 
1162 A.D. But he always wanted to establish a new religi- 
ous faith. He was very successful in bringing about great 
reforms in the Saiva faith. His Bhakti movement was uniq- 
ue as it attracted many great saints from all over India. Hi 
thus founded a casteless, creedless society, giving f^ual 
Importance to every individual. Thus he started the Saivah- 

19. Bhimakavi Basava Purana IV 1. page. 
ZO. Ibid., ill. pp. 85.86. 

21. Singiraja Purana VII. 46. 

22. BhimaKavi, Basavapurana 7,0,18,65.66. 

ubhava Mantapa.,3 Hare the fundamental principles of reli- 
gion, phitosopliy, were discussed and the great vacsna lite- 
rature toolc its final shape. Thus Basavesw&ra became the 
leader of a great movement. Allama Prabhu, a Siva yogi 
ascended the Pitha in 1162 A.D. The Saranas who gathe- 
red at Anubhava IVIantepa, eac hfollowed his own respec- 
tive path of salvation, in spite of all of them being Siva 
Bhaktas. Thus this organization attracted saints from far 
off places lii<e Kashmir and Banaras 24 

But Basaveswara's struggle to remove untouchabliity 
created a sensation In the traditional society. The orthodox 
people like Kondeya l\/lancanna carried tarried tales to Bijjala. 
They also accused Basaveswara of misappropriatl«n of treas- 
ures 2j These talks created suspicion in the mind of Bijjala. 
Besides this the marriage between the children of Madhuva- 
rasa, a brahmin and Haralayya an untouchable increased the 
tension of Bijiala whs was afratd of the traditional Brahmins. 
Though the Siva Saranas blessed this marriage, the traditio- 
nal society did not accept this. Bijjala had to punish the 
saranas to pacify the orthodox people. The eyes of Madhu!- 
varasa and Haralayya were removed and they were dragged 
In the streets tied to the feet of an 

This was a severe shock to the sensitive mind of Basa- 
veswara as he was against violence. He felt that his missi- 
on In Kalyana had come to an end. So with great sorrow 
he left Kalyana for Kudala Sangama.j^ 

23. Slnglraja Purana, 48, 3-6. 

24. Moligeya iVlarayya is said to have come from Kashmir 
after renouncng his kingdom. 

25. Basavannavara vacanagaiu, 754. 

26. Bhimakavi - Basavapurana 60.4. Channabasavapurana V. 

27. Turugaii Ramannana Vacanagaiu No. 45. 

The sa-anas were very much distressed and there was 
tension in Kaiyana in which Bijjsis was murdered by Jagad- 
eva and others. Though some of them were loyal to Taila 
III, the royal family suspected the saranas as having 
been responsible for this crime and they were chased by the 
sen of Bijjala. Thus the saranas came to a tragic end. 

Basaveswara who left Kaiyana three months before the 
tragic event.jg attained union with Kudala Sengameswara 
in 1167 A.Dj5 

Thus this chapter dealt with the events and qualities 
in the life of the great religious reformer. Basaveswara later 
influenced many religious end scholars including Falakuriki 
Somanatha whose works mostly deal with the life, teachings, 
or greatness of this great reformer of 12th century. Palku> 
riki Somanatha who belonged to an era immediately prior to 
that of Basaveswara, was full of admiration for this geret 
philosopher. Thus most et his wo'ks are full of Basavsaw* 
ara and his teachings. 

Basavodaharana-a synopsis and study 

In this woik Somanatha described in the eight vlbhaktls, 
the qualities, life and religious siddhanta of Basaveswara. 
In each vibhakti he wrete one sloka and then two slokas in 
Kalika and utkalika. In the prathama vibhakti he says that 
"let victory be to that Basaveswara who always worships tha 
Prana linga (Prana iingatma pujao), one who is famous for 
dana (khyata danavadanah) and one who has the respect for 
both the old Nayanars as well as the contemporary Saiva 

28. Kalajnada Vacana p.44, edited by Dr. P.G. Halakathi- 

29. All the events have taken place towards the end of 11 S7 
A D. From 1168 A.D. onwards Raya Murari Srideva htt 
been described as the emperor in the inscriptions. 

40 Smt, M. Umadevi 

devotees. He is the one who excels the moon in beauty 

and has absolute control over his wishes and speech. In 

the Dwitiya vibhakti, Somanatha gives Information about 

the knowledge of Basaveswara. He says that Basaveswara 

is the one who knows the meaning of Veosnta ccmpietely 

(Vedamartha rahasya bheda pisuna vyapara parangata). He 

is not only a master In philosophy but could wriie poetry 

(Basava vacanas) in matured style (proudha prakriya vakpr- 

apance racana caturya dhurya sayam) and could show the 

proofs of the supremacy of Lord Siva thereby pleasing the 

scholars (daivadhikya nidarsana pratibhuvam tapacchida 

panditam). This great man who is in charge of the Bhand* 

agara was very humble and was not proud of hfs prosperity 

but was happy with the enshrining of Siva in his heart 

(Amala nija hrudaya ktuti pancaya vidinu bhavam) . He 

with the strength of his character (Niratana riipuna carita) 

could drive away the sins of the people and is detached 

towards the worldly pleasures (ghana visaya rasa vimukha). 

In the Trtiya vibhakti Somanatha describss the supernatural 

powers of Basaveswara, who could bring out the kshiradh- 

ara from the body of the sivadsvotes, Sivanagumayy, in 

the royal court, with a touch of his fingers (Astnane siva- 

naga samyami kara dvandvanguli srenika lila lalana mayam 

nada janayat yah kshirah dharavalim). The story of Sivana* 

guma has been described by Palkurlkl in detail in his Telugu 

- dwipada ksvya, Basavapuranaj,. Basaveswara who has 

"Virasaiva diksha" which embodies the essence of Vedas, is 

the teacher of this "Sastra". He is the one who helped 

many to cross this samsara sagara by giving diksha to them 

and also one who could conquer the "Arissdvargas" and 

could cut. the creeper of Punarjanma with the sword of 

jnana. He was the one who always held discussions with 

the Saiva Saranas like Kannada Brahmayya, end Kinnera 

Brahmayya. He alto held religious assemblies for the old 

Palkurikl Somanatha 4i 

Bhakta ganas. Somanatha compares him to the Sumeru 
mountain full of diamonds for he is full of gunamani's. 
He is ths one who has g^ven Sivadiksha to IVIadiyaiu iVlaca> 
yya and is the one who showed the path of jnana to those 
who move in the Sanmarga (supatha pathiica citsukha sand- 
hira). He was interested in giving Molcsha and satisfied 
the devotees iilce a Kalpavrlcsha He was considered as a 
"Sangeeta nidhi," and rs considered to be a "Janma rahi- 
tya." The work ends with a s]ol<a in which the name of 
the author and the Sahitya Frakriya, !n which the woric Is 
written, is menttcned. 

sri basava raja gunamanl 
khaclta jayatat suvarna merat 
soma sukavina racita 
hridaya bharanam sadamudaharanam 

In Telugu also Somanafha wrote Basavodaharana desc- 
ribing the good qualities greatness and life of Basaveswara 
which resembled his Telugu dwipada kavya basava purana 
in the usage of words, style and so on. 

If we compare these two works we get the doubt whe- 
tber one is the translation of the other as both are written 
by the sama author. But they both are not and the same 
because, both dealt with the life of Basaveswara. The topic 
may be the same but the aspects he dealt with In one vlbh- 
akti are not the same found in the same vibhaktl of the 
other version. Though he has taken the same points in 
describing the qualities of Basaveswara, still the Telugu 
work is sin^ple in its style resembling that of Basavapurana 
(Telugu). He did not deal with the Telugu work in a poetic 
manner but used simple style in describing his qualities. 
We do not find much poetic approach in that work. 

On the other hand when it comas to the Sansarlt Basa- 

■»fc oiiii. in. umaaevi 

vodaharana, the podtic maturity of tho author is seen In the 
work Falkuriici described the qualities of Basaveswara, his 
meturity as one who has cortquerad the Arisadvarga, who 
is able to iesd the paopie across the "sanisera sagara" in 
t^e most poetic manner. He compares Basaveswara with 
many things using the upamalankara and there is definite 
clarity and maturity in the slcl^as which is not found much 
In the Telugu worlcs. In both the worlcs he used certain 
stories from Basavapurana. Here also he tried to focus the 
greatness of Siva Bhaktas like Nagumayya, Madiyalu l\/iaca- 
yya and others 3, 

Regarding the question both the works are written by 
the same author or not-some people are of the opinion that 
both works are not written by the same author. Then the 
question arises which work Is written by Palkuriki. It is 
already a well established fact that the Telugu work is wri* 
tten by Somanatha as It resembles his Telugu dwipada kavya 
Basavapurana in style and expression. But the last sloka of 
the Sanskrit work shows that this work is written by Soma* 
natha. who is this Somanatha then? Recently In a discu- 
ssion on this aspect with Sri Mudigonda Rumalinga Sastry, 
who is an authority on Saivism and a retired Lecture in Ori- 
ental College, Warangal, expressed the doubt saying that 
this Somanatha may be the grandfather of Palkuriki. If 
that Is the case how can cne agree with the already estabii* 
shed fact that Palkuriki Somanatha is the one who started 
the udaharana literature in Teiugu and Sanskrit, which is 
fallowed by the later writers. So this type of Sahitya pra- 

31. Siva Nagumayya story - Basavapurana, chap. 7, page 
491, Madivaiu macayya story - Basavapurana, chap. 4, 
page 232, Telugu Basavapurana dwipada kavya, publi- 
shed by Vavilla Ramasastry and sons. 

kriya is Sfiginally begun by one famous author Sen^a'atha 
and none eise. Tnus after comi.^o under the influen'-e of 
B3S£Vd thought, Somane.ha wrote one mijcr work in Tslugu, 
Bassvapurana, describing xhs life end sctlvitias of Bssaves- 
wara aiong with the descriptions of ins accounts of many 
Saiva devotees and he gave it the status c-f e purana Even 
after writing this major worl<, the author probably was not 
eatisfied with his literary achievement ard so next he wrote 
Basavodaharana in Teiugu, extolling the quafitius of his 
ideal hero in verse. Stiil our poet's faith and devotion in 
the great reiigius reformer increased and probably it led him 
to contribute another work of the same type in Sanskrit 
language which is also known as Basavodaharana where 
there is defintely a clarity and maturity in the expression of 
his ideas using the alamkaras, style in the most aesthetic 
way which is immediately felt by the reader. 

If It is stated that «ne is the translation of the other 
though the topic dealt in both the works is the same with 
still the way in which the works are dealt with, the compa« 
risons used certainly differ m both the works. There is 
more depth in the thoughts in the Sanskrit work, in the 
Sanskrit work, Basaveswara is described as the one who 
controlled his senses, who conquered the Arisadvarga, who 
knew the meaning of Vedanta from the roots, who could 
establish Virasaiva siddhanta, who no attacnment for worldly 
pleasures, who had great supernatural powers, who could 
cut down the creeper of rebirth with the sword of knowU 
edge, who tike a surya dries otf the attachments towards 
children, wife wishes etc, who is like a "Badabagni" to 
to "Samsara Sagara" who can be compared for his gunas 
to the Sumeru mountain which is full of Nidhis and who is 
well versed not only in Sastras but also in Sangita and who 
is the leader of those who follow muktimarga and one who 

widens the Bhaktimarga. tn one sloka (Saptami) the poet 
makes a beautiful reference, compares Basaveswara as the 
one who wanders about in that garden where there are sap- 
lings in the form of omkara, tiny leaves of Vcdas, bunches 
of flowers of pancakshari with the creepers of Nada (Sivan- 
ama). This dascription clea<ly defineii how Basaveswara 
felt, behaved, moved, his thoughts, speech, hearing and 
feeling about Lord Siva. Basaveswara's mind is lost itself 
in the concentration on and the Lord alone. 

Basaveswara is not only a great scholar and preacher 
but is one who in complete humilfty rests his head at the 
feet of Siva Saranas. He is generous, shows compassion 
to those who move in the wicKed path and are sinners. He 
is one who protects the Vlrasaiva vratacara. He is like an 
elephant crushmg the lotuses of sins in the lotus tank and 
established Vlrasaiva faith among common men. 

In the Telugu version, Somanatha did net lay so much 
stress on the description of qualities, using the alamkaras of 
comparison but wrote It in an extremely simple style. 

Religious aspect 

As the work of Somanatha stands it does not say 
much about the Vlrasaiva philosophy or religion. But it 
gives a yery detailed account of the life and activities of 
the great Vlrasaiva religious leaders, in reflecting the qua- 
titles, activities, his way of teaching the Bhakti and showing 
the path of devotion to the common man, this work is like 
A mirror. Paikuriki Somanatha was completety successful 
in showing his deepest faith and devotion towards Basave- 
swara which he poured In this poetic work. Naturally one 
can understand the then prevailing social conditions of that 
period and how with the influence of Basaveswara, Vlrasaiva 
feiigion could establish itself firmly In society. 

Palkuriki Somanatfta 45 

Vrsadhipa Sataka 

What is a Sataka? 

A poetic worl< containing iiundred stol<as is Icnown as 
sataica. Tliougli Sataica must contain iiundred slolos some 
satal(as contain 108 sioicas. But these slolcas are also refe- 
rred to aa satalcas. The satakas are meant for praising the 
god. So according to the stotras like "Astottara Satanama- 
vall," these eight slokas are also included in the Sataka. 

Amongst ali the SatakaS; Vrsadhipa Sataka by Samana- 
tha is very famous. 

Origin and development of Satakas 

The basis for any Alankara Sastra or any classical liter- 
ature, Bharata's Natya Sastra found the base. Next comes 
the famous Bhamaha who belongs to the 6th century A D. 
He divides the kavya as 

sarga bandho abhineyartha tadaivakhyayika katha 
anibaddhamce kavyadi tatpunah pancadhocyats 

by Bhamaha'a time Sataka is recognised as "anibaddha 

Dandin of seventh century, further divided this. A sin- 
gle Individual sioka according to him is a Muktaka. A group 
of muktakas written by a single author is a Kulaka. A einqle 
subject written by an author is a "Sanghata". A group of 
muktas written by different authors is Kosa "lyiuktakam 
kulakam kosah sanghata iti taddrsah." 

Bhamaha who came in the earlier period did not men- 
tion about these muktakas but divld^^d poetry into Nibaddha 
and Anibaddha groups. These muktakas are asain mentio- 
ned in Agnipurana of ninth century. The later writers Ana- 

widens the Bhaktimarga. In one sloka (Saptami) the poet 
makes a beautiful reference, compares Basaveswara as the 
one who wanders about in that garden where there are sap- 
lings in tha form of omkara, tiny leaves of Vcdas, bunches 
of flowers of pancakshari with the creepers of Nada (Sivan- 
ama). This dascription clea>ly defines how Basaveswara 
felt, behaved, moved, his thoughts, speech, hearing and 
feeling about Lord Siva Basaveswara's mind is lost itself 
In the concentration on and the Lord alone. 

Basaveswara is not only a great scholar and preacher 
but is one who in complete humility rests his head at the 
feet of Siva Saranas. He is generous, shows compassion 
to those who move in the wicKed path and are sinners, hie 
is one who protects the Virasaiva vratacara. He is like an 
elephant crushmg the lotuses of sins in the lotus tank and 
established Virasaiva faith among common men. 

In the Teiugu version, Somanatha did not iay so much 
stress on the description of qualities, using the aiamkaras of 
comparison but wrote it in an extremely simple style. 

Religious aspect 

As the work of Somanatha stands It does not say 
much about the Virasaiva philosophy or religion. But it 
gives a very detailed account of the life and activities of 
the great Virasaiva religious leaders, in reflecting the qua- 
lities, activities, his way of teaching tha Bhakti and showing 
the path of devotion to the common man, this work is like 
a mirror. Palkuriki Somanatha was completety successful 
tn showing his deepest faith and devotion towards Basave- 
swara which he poured In this poetic work. Naturally one 
can understand the then prevailing social conditions of that 
period and how with the influence of Basaveswara, Virasaiva 
rellaion could establish itself firmly In society. 

PalkutikI Somanatha 4§ 

Vrsadhipa Sataka 

What is a Sataka? 

A poetic work containing liundred slokas Is known as 
sataka. Though Sataka must contain hundred slokas some 
satakas contain 108 siokas. But these slokas are also refe- 
rred to as satakas. The satakas are meant for praising the 
god. So according to the stotras like "Astottara Satanama- 
vali/" these eight slokas are also included in the Sataka. 

Amongst all the Satakas, Vrsadhipa Sataka by Samana- 
tha is very famous. 

Origin and development of Satakas 

The basis for any Alankara Sastra or any classical liter- 
ature, Bharata's Natya Sastra found the base. Next comes 
the famous Bhamaha who belongs to the 6th century A D. 
He divides the kavya as 

sarga bandho abhineyartha tadaivakhyayika katha 
anibaddhamce kavyadi tatpunah pancadhocyats 

by Bhamaha'a time Sataka is recognised as "anibaddha 

Dandin of seventh century, further divided this. A sin- 
gle Individual sloka according to him is a Muktaka. A group 
of muktskas written by a single author is a Kuiaka. A sinrjle 
subject written by an author is a "Sanghata". A group of 
muktas written by different authors is Kosa "l^uktakaiTi 
kulakam kosah sanghata Iti taddrsah." 

Bhamaha who came in the earlier period d'd not men- 
tion about these muktskas but divided poetry into Nibaddha 
and Anibaddha groups. These muktakas are asein tr.entio- 
ned in Agnipurana of nSnth century. The later writers Ana- 
ndavardhan and Viswanatha, though mentioned the charac* 

widens the Bhaktimarga. In one sloka (Saptami) the poet 
makes a beautiful reference, compares Basaveswara as the 
one who wanders about In that garden where there are sap- 
lings in the form of omkara, tiny leaves of Vcdas, bunches 
of flowers of pancakshari with the creepers of Nada (Sivan- 
ama). This dascription cleaify defines how Basaveswara 
felt, behaved, moved, his thoughts, speech, hearing and 
feeling about Lord Siva Basaveswara's mind is lost itself 
in the concentration on and the Lord alone. 

Basaveswara is not only a great scholar and preacher 
but is one who in complete humility rests his head at the 
feet of Siva Saranas. He is generous, shows compassion 
to those who move in the wicKed path and are sinners. He 
Is one who protects the Virasaiva vratacara. He is like an 
elephant crushing the lotuses of sins In the lotus tank and 
established Virasaiva faith among common men. 

in the Te'lugu version, Somanatha did not lay so much 
stress on the description of qualities, using the alamkaras of 
comparison but wrote it in an extremely simple style. 

Religious aspect 

As the work of Somanatha stands it does not say 
much about the Virasaiva philosophy or religion. But it 
gives a yery detailed account of the life and activities of 
the great Virasaiva religious leaders, in reflecting the Qua- 
lities, activities, his way of teaching the Bhakti and showing 
the path of devotion to the common man, this work is like 
a mirror. Palkuriki Somanatha was completety successful 
in showing his deepest faith and devotion towards Basave- 
swara which he poured In this poetic work. Naturally one 
can understand the then prevailing social conditions of that 
period and how with the influence of Basaveswara, Virasaiva 
religion could establish itself firmiy In society. 

PalkurikI Somanatfia 4§ 

Vrsadhipa Sataka 

What is a Sataka? 

A poetic work containing hundred slokas is known as 
sataka. Though Sataka must contain hundred slokas some 
satakas contain 108 slokas. But these slokas are also refe- 
rred to as satakas. The satakas are meant for praising the 
god. So according to the stotras like "Astottara Satanama- 
vaii," these eight slokas are also included in the Sataka. 

Amongst all the Satakas, Vrsadhipa Sataka by Samana- 
tha is very famous. 

Origin and development of Satakas 

The basis for any Alankara Sastra or any classical liter- 
ature, Bharata's Natya Sastra found the base. Next comes 
the famous Bhamaha who belongs to the 6th century A D. 
He divides the kavya as 

sarga bandho abhineyartha tadaivakhyayika katha 
anibaddhamce kavyadi tatpunah pancadhocyate 

by Bhamaha'a time Sataka Is recognised as "anibaddha 

Dandin of seventh century, further divided this. A sin- 
gle Individual sloka according to hfm Is a Muktaka. A group 
of muktakas written by a single author Is a Kulaka. A single 
subject written by an author is a "Sanghata". a group of 
muktas written by different authors is Kosa "Muktakam 
kulakam kosah sanghata iti taddrsah." 

Bhamaha who came In the earlier period d'd not men- 
tion about these muktakas but divided poetry into Nibaddha 
and Anibaddha groups. These muktakas are asain nr.entto- 
ned in Agnlpurana of nfnth century. The iatar writers Ana- 
n^ivar(^han and Viswanatha/ though mentioned the charac* 

46 Smt. M. Umadovl 

teristlcs of the muktakas and Satakas still did not consider 
Safaka as a separate entity. Probably they considered Sata- 
ka only as a type of "Padya kavya." 

A sataka should have makata candas, samkhya and rasa 

Makuta!- Every sataka should have one definite makuta, 
which is followed In every individual sataka. For example, 
the makuta of Vrsadhipa Sataka Is "basava basava vrsad 
hlpa/' for Cendrasel<hara satakam "Candrasekhara candras- 
ekhara rakshamam." 

Thus we see so many satakas with particular ntakutas 
Thus we see so many satakas with particular makutas in each 
work. The satakas produced In the early Period are mostly 
devotional and so the makutas are mostly meant for chanting 
and identification. 

Sankhya-. According to lakshanlkas the sataka should 
have a definite sankhya A sataka generally means 
s work of hundred slokas. Each work generally consists of 
108 slokas. 

Rasa:- The chief rasa which prevails in any of these sata- 
kas Is usually bhakti rasa as these satakas are included mai- 
nly In the devotional literature. (Neethi Vairagya and 
Sringara Satakas are also there) 

Vrsadhipa Sataka 

This work of Sorranatha fullv justifies all the character- 
istics of sataka literature with makuta and so on. Thus it 
is a fuIHIedged work of sataka literature. Somandtha was 
fully Immersed in the devotion of Basaveswara by the time 
he started writing this work. So he uses the makuta "Basa- 
vabasava vrsadhipa." This makuta dearly Indicates his great 
love and devotion for Basaveswara. Somanatha strictly 

Palkuriki Somanatha Al 

follows the rules of Sstaka. In the first forty slokas he 
describes thi greatness of Basaveswara. The great qualities 
of Basaveswara lil<e his devotion, his observation of Sivsdo 
harma, his affection and Icindness for Siva saranas are well 
described In this work. 

Besides the greatness of Basaveswara, Somanatha men< 
tlons other devotees likeSivanagumayva, IVIadiyalu Macayya, 
Cenna Basaveswara and others 

Vrsadhipa Sataka is net a pure Sanskrit work but is 
written In Tamil, Tefugu, Kannada. Sanskrit and a mixture 
of those languages also, thus indicating the writers schof8r> 
ship in many languages. 

This work was first published bv l\^uttavya in 1884 A.D. 
In Madras. When compared with other satakas we find one 
technical peculiarity in this work. Palkuriki did not write 
all the slokas in one language. This is mainly a Telugu 
composition because out of the 108 slokas about 80 are 
written In Telugu. First sloka to forty ninth skka are Telu- 
gu poems. After writing twenty slokas in other languages 
he again shifted to Telugu language, only a few of them 
are written in Sanskrit and few in otner langusges like Mara- 
thi, Kannada and Manipravala. that is a mixture of these 
languages, in some slokas the whole poem Is in Sanskrit 
but the last verbal is in Telugu (Yenucu sanskrita bhasa 
nutlntu ninnu vidvannuta namadheya basava).32 

In this whole work there are only six slokas written in 
pure Sanskrit (50,51,52,53.54 and 54 slokas). In these 
toe the last line is written In a mixture of San&krit and other 
languages. 59 sloka is written In a mixture of Telugu and 
Sanskrit languages. 60th sioka is writren in a mixture of 

32. Vrsadhipa Satsks, S5 ^lokq. 

«8 Smt M. Umadevf 

Dravida, Sanstcrit and Telugu languages. 61st sloka Is wrl< 
tfen In Telugu, Kannada and Sanskrit languages. 64th is a 
mixture of Kannada and Sanskrit languages. The remaining 
slokas are written in pure Telugu. 

All the slokas are mainly meant for describing the great 
qualities of Basaveswara. Some of the descriptions are 
the same as in Basavodaharana. Besides these descriptions 
he wote many stories of Basavapurana in this work too. 
But that is a dwipadakavya In Telugu and this is a sataka. 
The same point he stresses again and again In his composi- 
tions If we go through all the works of Palkuriki, It is 
clear that the main aim of the writer i« to propagate the 
greatness of Basaveswara, In it Is expressed his devotion 
(or the latter, his concentration In propagating VIrasaivIsm 
and the stories of Saranas. 

After describing the qualities of the great religious refo- 
rmer in 47 slokas, Somanatha says that he is going ts extoll 
Basaveswara In many languages So these Sanskrit slokas 
are mainly meant for stutl alone Rather the whole work can 
be considered as a "stutikavya " Here Basaveswara Is prai- 
sed ae one wha Is famous in the three works (khyata yasah 
prapurita jagatritayaya), who is an incarnation of Lord Nan- 
diswara (tamudyota vrsayate) who removes the unhappiness 
ef ail his devotees (Aptegsna pravista sakalarti haraya nemo) 
•ne whose ornaments are his good qualities (gana kalpa 
varayale namo namo) one whose mind is full of bhakti alone 
{bhakfyujita manasaya) one who removes the caste differe- 
nces among the people (varna nirasakava) and one who Is 
praised even by the scholars (vldvannuta namadheya). 

In the mixed slokas if one word is In Telugu. Kannada 
or Marathi the second word Is in Sanakrit. Only in the 
Sanskrit slokas the description of the qualities of J^Basavf- 

Palkuffkl Somanatha 49 

•wara Is given and there is no mention of the stories of the 
Saranas which he has deait In the last stolcas of the woric. 

Thus, It can be concluded that fhe Vrsadhipa Sataka is 
another addition to the vast literature written in praise 
of Basaveswara, the religioui reformer of Kamataka. This 
work also indicates the great influence of Basaveswara on 
Somanatha. This resulted in the vast literature written on 
the greatness of Basaveswara. 


Among all the works of Somanatha, Rudrabhasja rema- 
ined undiscovered. Pidaparti Somanatha refers to it as one 
of Somanatha's works 33 It may be inferred that this work 
may be an earlier than Somanatha Bhasya. 

Cne manuscript with ihe title "Rudra Bhasya" Is found 
In the Oriental Manuscript Library, Andhra Pradesh Govern- 
ment. The number of this mnnuscrlpt is 2705. But it Is 
net written by Somanatha and the author of Rudrabhasya as 
mentioned in this work is Brahma Vidyatirtha It is exactly 
not a palm leaf manuscript but is written on loose papers in 
the manuscript style. There are about twenty nine pages 
In it. The first page of it starts with it as follows :- 

j/'Ganapatirjayati asyasri taddaprasnasya 
srisamsusarga.^srimat virata canadah 
mahadevo devanam mokshartha jape viniyogah 
hanucaramayaddlstakaryam tratanyantu juhotiti 
came vtnlyukfasya katham mokshe viniyogah 
nacaiva na moksha swarga papakshaya... 

33. Padya Basava Purana - Pitlka by Pidaparfi Somanatha. 

34. Rudrabhasya - by Brahma Vidyatirtha, 1st page. 
Oriental lyjanuspript Library. Hyderabad. 


$0 Smt. 191. Cfma(i9?l 

regyayusyadi pratiya manatvan tatra 
jabalopaniayat ■cahaina brahma crahma carina ucuh 
kim japya namrtatva brhltl sa ho vacaya... 

It Gontinuea In a similar vein- The end of this work 
Is-ltr srI pafamaha, parivrajaicacarya paramatma tirtha 
sitya brahma vidyacarya viraclta rudrabhasyem sampurna... 
•ada aivarpanamastu. Saica sam 1585 caitra masa suddasa 
(not dear} caturdasya guru vasara saradanandana vamsavena 
ilva aadasutena maha davakhyena swartham parartham ca 

Thus there la clear Information that the work with the 
name Rudrabhasya available in the Oriental Maruscript L!br> 
ary, Andhra Pradesh, cannot have been written by Falkuriki 

Though the work Is not available, passages from Rudra 
bhasya ara quoted In Somanatha Bhasya and work in Telugu 
randitaradhya Carltra. Thess certainly substantiate the 
existence and the nature of Rudrabhasya. Though many 
details are net available, still it can l>e said that it may be 
a bhaaya on the Satarudriya portions of Yajurveda and was 
written before. 

Rudradhyaya is found in the Yajurveda (Taltarlya sam- 
hlta and Sukia Yajurveda). This is otherwise known Sata. 
rudilya or Srirudram or Namaica or Rudra Namaka, These 
Namakas are divided into eleven anuvakas. Each anuvaka 
centalns certain significant mantras. That Rudrabhasya is a 
commentary on these anuvakas is proved with the following 
evidence. Somanatha mentions them as Rudra Suktas. 
Soma quotations from the Rudrabhasya found in his Telugu 
work Panditaradhys Caritra ^re given balow. (Telugu quot- 

Pulkuilkl Somanatha &.1c 

,j»a rudrudapudu "yaterudra" yanags 
sri rudra sukta sancita bhasya sarali . . 
dharanl "jaradwfpatranu" naga srutulan 
baragu jara kranta bhavambu daici 
krtakampu viprududdhati negudenci 
vinutimpabadi yajurvedania magucu 
danaru "sri rudra suktmuna srutula 
yana matambafyatia "yacchacayosca'"' 
"manurayajeplta" yana "dacfasyami" 
"tatva rudra" yana "branita" yana janina 
yavirala sukta bhasyartha matlanina 
"He rudra" yanaga dano rudra yanucu 
varaka marayu "da va b^anlta" 
vananga burvartha mananga nlyokha 
sangati linga puja velanadu 
v!ni "yo" manu mantra "tana" nanedi 
yeniyu "bhavantam bhava ayaje" yanaga 
davili nfn bujincedanu ... 

Quotations from Rudra Suktas have bean given in Soma- 
natha bhasya and Panditaradhya carltra but they are not «)tpl- 
ainad. in Somanatha Bhasya the following references are 
given :- 

1. adhoye asya satvano ha tebhyo namah 

2. namovah kiri kebhyo 

These mantras are explained in terms of VIrabhadra and 
Framathaganas,3g In Somanatha Bhasya at another place 
the mantra — 

"namo hiranya bahave sananye disanca pataye namah". 
Is given. It is explained as "tat rudra bhasye-disanca 
pataye namah iti sabda nirvacanamaha " 

35. Panditaradhya Carltra II, p. 125. 
3^. S«man9tha Bh«sya, page §. 

W Smt. M. Omadavl 

This shows clearly that Rudra Bhasya Is a commentary 
•n iiudradhyaya. 

Soma storlts of SIvabhaktas are given In the Telugu 
work FanditarsdhyB Carltra as found In Rudrabhasya. 

i«-tathalva rudrabhasyep ;■>• 

1. tasyapl tasya vrata parlpalanadgalltya 
punarspl ysssamanvagrahit 

(oummara gundayya katha) 

t. bhalravl yeita vapusam kasyacit 
bhrtyasya mftra micchuratlrbabhuva 
(Story of CIrutonda) 

3. eandalamkrti manditam kasyacit 
bhrtyasya ysjnagara mabhyarcana 
Valva pravivesa 

(Stsry of Samavedl) 

4. bhruvlvara bhrestahavihl 
kaayaclt bhrutyasya tatrakrtam 

sannldhano bhubhuje 
(Story of Bhogayya) 

i. ekottara syama pranayamanasya 
jihvagrat kincida 

(Story of A/ladara Cennayya) 

e. Jsradwipratanuh pradarslta kapata lekhakah 
Wfidt bhrutyam jagrah— 

(odayanambi katha) 

7. aaperadha matmanam marayitu kamam kinclt bhrutyam 

iilvw yitum vastre jlrnajala ethane pradurbhabhuva 

(Stor^ Of KsrIkalQ Coda) 

Palkurlkl Somanatha §3 

8. kascana paduka par]darsana prahratah swikrta 
gandusa jatabhisecanah sthira bhaktih kasyapi 
(Story of Kannappa) 

All the stories mentioned above are dealt in detail In 
his Teiugu work Basava Purana, and Panditaradhya Carltra. 
In Somanatha Bhasya the following mantras have been 
mentioned as having taken from the Rudrabhasya. 

— sri Rudrabhasye— 

uttama veda bhusito 
devottamabhyam prajanana maiankrtam 
jagatkaranatvena janisyati iakshanatvat 
S.B. 4th chap, 18 page. 

The same sentence is again repeated in the 96th pagt of 
S. Bhasya. 

'— Satarudriye-* 

Bhavantam me vari vastkrta 
yousadhlnam pataye namah 
babhiusaya divyodhlnennanam patayt 
namo namah drape andhassrute 
annapatennasya nodehi ye rudra 
agnou you apsuya ausadhisviti 

SB. 8th chap. p.33i 

— Yojurvede aatarudriye — 
yacchamyosca manuraya jesita 
tadasyama tava rudra praniteu 
aiia brndayavyuthah rudrenannamamrtam dtva 
val bhoktu kama aeveyasca kamayante 
(S.B. 8th chap) 

, 54 'Smt. M. dmad$vi 

prthivyah hhavah apamsarvah agneh 
rudrah vayorbhimah akasasya maha 
devah suryasyograh candrasya 
somah atmanah pasupatiriti ptatyeka 
dhjsta taoa fanayita ca bhavati 
"•■ '"^' (S.B. 19th chap, 101 page) 

,r; yajurvede-satarudriye-namassivaye — 
ca siva taraya ca namassivaya ca 
hari kesayaca 

(S.B. 22nd chap, page 111) 

srl rudrabhasye - rtag satyam param 
brahma bhavam rati dadatiti va 
rudrah rtag satyamiti tridha 
baddho baddho vrsabho rutpranavah 
tannadante dravati dravayatiti 
rudrah rodana masubha dravakam rudrah 
(S.B. 24th chap. 114 p) 

From the above menfioned facts it is clear that, 

1. Polkuriki Somanttha has written a book by name 
Rudrabhasye. This is not available but its reference has 
been given in his other Telugu and Sanskrit works. 

2. A manuscript by name Rudrabhasya is availabie In 
the Oriental lyAanuscript Library, l-lyderabad. its author is 
not Somanatha but Brahma Vidya Tirtha. 

Though the purpose of both Somanatha Bhasya and 
Rudra Bhasya is the same, Somanatha referred to the stories 
of some Siva bhaktas whenever an occasion arose. But 
mainly hsjmtttt.have dealt with real Saiva Philosophy, Saiva 
rituals and principles like astavaranas and must have conde* 
mned the non-5aivaite philosophies.. Through this he pr«b- 

Palkuriki Somanatha 55 

ably wanted to establish his Sivadvaita Siddhanta In 
Somanatha bhasya he took quotations from stuVs smritis 
puranas itihasas, agamas. upanisads, etc. to suit his sidd- 
hanta and used them in his Bhasya in a particular manner. 
Thus Somanatha Bhasya is not a commentary en any work. 
It spealcs volumes of the greatness of Basava and establishes 
the acaras of Virasaivism. So it is Icnown as "Basavarajiya" 
or Virasaiva Saroddhara " Rudrabhasya does not follow this 
pattern but follows the Bhasyakaras. Hare Somanatha reve- 
als his ability in Interpreting the meanings of the mantras. 
This can be unders'ood as the main difference between these 
two works of literature. 

Chapter III 


What is Saivism? 

Saivism is perhaps one of the eldest faiths of our coun- 
try. The ail pervading formless sha peiess Siva is given a 
dafinife form for the benefit of the devotee. This religion 
consists of the worship of Siva in the form of Linga. The 
articles found at Mohenjodaro and Harappa indicate that this 
cult of Siva and the worship of Linga existed as early as the 
Indus valley civilization. Even today in India it 1$ a great 
religion with a potent philosophy behind it. Even during 
the time of Vedas, Parameswara in the form of Rudra is 
worshipped in the Vedic literature- From the hymns of 
Rudra only gradually a more auspicious Siva has evolved, 
svah sreyasaro sivam bhadram kalyanam mangalam subham. 
That which is concerned with Siva it Saivism. 

So Saivism is cencerned with the religion including 
rituals and philosophy of Lord Siva. 

References to Siva frequently occur in Rigveda. Siva 
linga representing the Yupasthambha and as the remnants tf 
yajna for the protectlan has been described in Kathaka 
Samhita.2 Not only in the Vedas but also In the Puranas 
Linga as a symbolic form of Parabrahma is described. 

1. Amaraicosa > Prathama kanda sloka 25, page 55. Amar- 
akosa published by Satyabhamabai Pandurang. Bombay 
-1944 edition. 

2. Kathaka Samhita XXX XXX t.l Rigveda 1.34 2 IK 13.6. 

fulkurikl Somanatha §7 

According to Siva Purana, Siva is the only Almighty 
without beginning or end without any form i.e , He is 
Formless. Sa l^is niralcara form i e , linga form is the best 
form for worship, in the Vedic samhitas aniy the Rudra 
Siva form is available In the Vedic samhitas only the 
Rudra Siva form is available. It is only in the upanisads we 
have the parameswara form of Lord Siva. Whatever may be 
the gradual development not only in Vedas, but even in 
Agamas, Lingarcana has been dealt with. In Saivagama 
Siva is mentioned as Fati, the Lord, Pasa as the Bondage, 
and Pasu as the Jiva. 

3saivagamesu mukhyam pasu pasa iti triyam 

tatva patlssiva uktah pasavohyanavortha pancakam pasah 

A brief note en Saivism, according to SIddhanta Sikha- 
mani is given below i 

Saivism is "Sarva vedamaya" and so it Is a "Pramana" 
by Itself like the Vedas. 

^vaidlka desa vartitvam saivam vedamayam matam 
jsarva vedartha rupatvat pramanam vedavatsada 

The Agamas have been divided by Lord Siva into Saiva, 
Fasupata, Soma, and Lakula. 

gagama bahudha praktah sivena paramatmana 
ealvam pasupatam somam lakulam cetf bheditah 

Again among these Saivism Is divided into four types. 
They are Varna, Dakshina Misrama, and SIddhanta. 

3. Tatva Frakasika, 1st parlcheda, page 6. 

4. SIddhanta Sikhamani, 5 paricheda, 6 sioka. 

5. Ibid., 5 paricheda, 8 sloka. 

6. ibid., 6 paricheda, 9 aloka. 

S8 i>n^t- M. Umadevi 

-tesu salvam caturbhedam t&ntra sarva viniscitem 
vamanca dakshinancaiva mUra sidohanta sanjnikam 

Varna gives importance to SaktI. Dakshlna is Bhairavatma. 
Misrama is Sapta matrdevatatmaka and Siddhanta ia Sakti 
vislsta Sivatmaka 

gsaktl pradhanam vamakhyam dakshlnam bhairavatmakam 
sapta matrpara misram siddhanta veda sammatanrs 

3, Branches of Saivism 

There are thres main branches of Saivism. They arei 
(1) Kasmir Saivism, (2) Vira Saivism which is found in the 
Deccan and Karnataka. and (3) Saiva Siddhanta of South. 

Though there are some differenoes In these three bran* 
chea as regards certain principles of rites and rituals, yet 
the basic fundamental principles are the same in all these 
three varieties. These branches are based on the basis of 

Accoriding to some scholars Saivism is again of four 
types, viz., Samanya Saivam, Misra Saivam, Suddha Saivam 
and Vira Saivam. 

samanya saivam prathamam mIsra saivam tatah param 
suddha saivam teto jneyam vira saivam tatah param 

Futher Chandrajnanagama divides Saivism into eight bran6heli 
jsnadi saivam prathamamadi saivam dwitiyakam 
purva saivam trtlyam sthanmisra saivam caturthakam 
suddha salvant pancamasyat sastam vai marga saivakam 
samanyam saptamam j neyam vira saiva mathastakam 

7. ibid.. 5 psricheda. 10 sloka. 

8. Siddhanta Sikhameni, 5 paricheda. 

t. Chendrajnanagama, Dasama paialam, page 68. 

Palkuriki Somanathg 69 

The Saivagamas have further differentiated them into ten 
types. Thus we have Samanya Saivam, Purva Saivam, Misra 
SaJvam, Suddha Saivam and so on. 
adou samanaya saivantu puiva saivam dwitiyalcam 
misra saivam trtiyantu suddha saivam caturthal(am 
pancamam srouti saivantu sastantu marga saivanca 
saptamam vira saivam syadvira samanya mastaiom 
visesam vira saivantu navamar^ pari icirtitcm 
nirabharavyaya saivantu dasamam pa.'icoditem 
l<r{ya saivam dasa vidham tattadbheda mahocyate 
Among the above mentioned categories, in Srauta Sai- 
vam, IVIarga Saivam and Virasaivam, the worshipper keeps 
the Istalinga given by the guru in his hand and worships it. 
this Istalinga has got to be l<ept with him for ever. If on 
any occasion the linga is lost, death will be the only puni- 
shment for him. This type of punishment is meant only for 
Virasaivsites. He must constantly engage himself in const- 
ant religious practice or sadftana and must meditate only on 
Pancakshara. It must be noted that the worship of other 
gods is prohibited for him. one who constantly engages 
himself in such a Sadhana for the attainment of "Sivajiv 
aikya" or Identity of Lord Siva and individual Soul is known 
as Virasaivaite. 
4. Virasaivism 

Virasaivism is termed SIvadvaita as it holds that th« 
ultimate Reality Is Siva, the all inclusive universal Being in 
whom the entire multiplicity of the phenomenon or worid 
originatas, exists and finally dissoiovas according to His 

Scholars have given the meaning of the Virasaiva as 

joVldyayam siva rupayam Visesadgsmana yatah] 

10. Siddhanta Sikhamani, 6 parichada. 

60 ^mt M. OmadBvi 

tasmadete mahabhsga virasaiva iti smrts 
visabde nocyaie vidya sIva jivaikya bochini 
tasyam remante ye saivah viia saiva s:ute rnata 
vedanta janyam ysd jnanam vidyati pariHirtitam 
vidyayam ramanie tasyam vira ityabhi dniyathe 

Sri patipandUa, who wrote a ccmmf r.:ary on Brahmasu- 
trae in the light of SaivUtn cbsEtved in the beginning of hia 
wo'lc as : 

j^asesopanisatsara visistadvaita mendari&m 
sivajnana pradam sutrabhasyam jeyatu i^arvada 
srtyail^a desa pramanyam dvaitadvita matadlsu 
virasa!vall(a siddhante sarva smrti samanvayam 

The Virasalvaitet are generally as know nLlngayata. 
They believe both in Agamas and Vadas but do not have 
faith in the Karma Kanda portion of the Vedsis. 

The Vedic statements 

(1) caturvarnanam lingadharana mucyate 

(2) mul<he mantram hrdldhyanam, mastalce lingadharanam 
sikha suiram, jata bhasma etat brahmana lakshanam 

Ali these evidences indicate that Virasaivism is also in confo- 
rmity with the Vedas pariiaily. 

6. Frinciples of Virasaivism 

The Aatavaranas and Pancacaraa are very important for 
Virasalvaitea. Bhuti, Rudraksa, IWantra, Prasada, linga, 
langama, Padatirtha and Guru constitute the Astavaranaa. 
The Pancacaras are Lingacara, Sadacara, SiVacara, Ganacara, 
and Bhrtyacara. Besides these there are six principal sthalaa 
or aatstha lat. They are Bhakta, Maheswarf, Prasad!, Prana- 
1t. Srikar« Bhashya, Pithika prakasana. ~ ' 

Palkurlkl Somanatha 61 

lingl, Sarans, and Aikya sthalas In these satshales again 
there are forty four Angasthias, and fifty seven Linga sthalas. 
These two together are known as Avantara Sthais In the 
VIrasaiva langeage both these ilnga and sthala sabdas indi- 
cate Parabrahman. 

Besides these, SIvadiksha or Lingadharana is very esse- 
ntial for VIrasaivaites as It is the most essentia! samskara of 
life for them. 

7. What is Linga? 

LInga is derived from the two roots Li and Gam. Gam 
means to go. to issue forth or to start that from which crea- 
tion starts or which is the cause of ail creation. Li means 
to absorb that in which all things merge finally. 

jgllyate gamyate yatra yena earvam caracaram 
tadettallinga mityuktam linga tatva visaradalh 

Diksha Is the initiation to the individual in order to initiate 
him into the spiritual path. The guru performs the thrse-fold 
diksha i.e. Vedha, Mantra and Kriya in order to remove the 
Anave, Maya and Karma impurities and to grant the indivi- 
dual Bhava linga Prara linga. and Ista Ilnga, respectively. 
Diksha Is accepted as a means to provide freedom to one 
and all in the fie^d of salvation This spiritual Initiation is 
granted to ail without any discrimination of caste, creed 
and sex. After the initiation and receiving the istalinga 
from the guru, the disciple is required to worship only his 
Istalinga. Thus the guru helps the individual as Oiksha 
guru, Sikhsa guru and Moksha guru ,3 

Just as upanayana gives dwtjatwa to brahmanas in the 

12. SIvanubhavasutra, Chapter III, al.3. 

13. Sri Basayeswara Commemoration Volume, page 358. 

g2 Smt. M. Umadevl 

same manner L5ngadharana gives moksadhikara to Virasaival- 

Sripatipandita who commented on the Vedanta sutras 
In the light of Virasaivlsm says: ,4 

brahma visnavadi devasca munayo goutamadayah 
dharayati sadya lingam uttamange visesatah 
urah sthale harlr lingam dhrutva murdhani pitamahah 
lingastham mam samaradhya swamswam padamavapatuh 

The bhskta is required to offer hia devotion to istalinga 
which is bestowed by the Guru. IWorality is observed very 
strictly as the devotee is progressing in his spiritual path he 
realises sins and temptations of the world. By the people 
Indulging In worshipping the Unga the sins of the 
devotees will be removed. 


There are eight for the attainment of spirituality and the 
final union with the Lord. These are Guru, LInga, Jangama, 
Vibhuti, Ruersksa, Padodaka, Prasada and IVIantra. These 
constitute the Astavaranas in the VIrasaivaite religion. 


Guru is the preceptor who iaitiates the devotee In the 
knawlcdge of Siva and guides him in the practice of worship 
and devotion after performing the Oiksa ceremony. The 
famous saytng,jg "na gurer adhikam nasti tattvam guroh 
param," clearly Indicates the greatness and importance of 
guru. Accordlning fo Siddhanta Sikhamani,,j the guru must 
have detachment to worldfy obj'ects, be of clear mind, have 
the knowledge about Atman and Brahman, one who has the 

14. Srikara Bhashya, page 16, Kaslnath granthamela, 
II?. 8. Slkhamanl, Guru Karunya Sthal^. 

PalkuiikI Somanatha 63 

•blllty to clear the doubts of the Sisya, always truthful and 
devoted to Lord Siva and one who observes the Pancacaras. 

In Virasaivam Lord Siva only represents himself in the 
form of guru.jj 

guru reva mahadeva sakshat sarvajaga'prabhuh 
anyatha tarn na janiyat para tatvavabodhakam 
ahameva gururbhutva diksha slksa vidhanatah 
bhaktanmsdeka saranam sthasyami bhava budheh 

Thus !t is the guru who gives the Istallnga after Diksha 
to the disciple and paves the path for the latter's iVIoksha. 

2. Linga:- Linga is Siva representing the Parabrahman. 
According to Skanda Purana, Linga is that into which the 
whole universe from Atom to the gods finally emerge „ 

brahmadi stamba paryantam yasmineti layam jagat 
eka bhava samapannam linga tasmatdvidur budhah 

Thus this linga is the symbolic form of Parabrahma.j, 
brahmeti iinga makhyatam brshmanah patirlswarah 
pavitram tadhi vikhyatam tat saparkattanussuchih 
layam gachati yatralva jagadetaccaraccaram 
punah punah samutpattih tallingem brahma saswatam 
llngamtu trividham proktam sthulam suksmam paratpsram 
istallnga midam sthulam yad bahye dharyate tanoh 

Linga can be Istallnga, Pranalinga or Bhavaiinga. The 
linga Siva with form is Istalinga and this further modifies 
Into Akara linga end Gurui!nga.,g 

16 Sukshmag^ma, Panchama Patalam. page 3 . 

17 Skanda Purana, Avant'khanda, Reva khanda, rage 123, 
published i949. Bangalore. 

18. SIddhanta SIkhamani Linga Paricheda. 

19. S'Slkhsmani. 6 Paricheda, 49 page, 1,2$iok9$, 

64 Smt M. OmadBvl 

Acara lingam pranakhyam bhaktaathalasamasrayam 
guru llngamtu jihvakhyam mahesa sthala samasrayam 
prathfsthakaiyapetam rasagrahanaaadhnem. 

Siva with or without form fs Prana llng8(Q which it 
again divided as Siva linga and Cara iinga. Siva without 
form is the Bhava iinga which is again modified into Prasada 
iinga and lOlaha Iinga 21 

The istalinga la the Bodha mantra which Identiflea with 
pure constousness. 

The Prana Iinga is a mystical iinga which Identifies with 
the Supreme Nada. 

The Bhava linga is the original cause effect and process, 
it Is the pure bliss without parallel. 


Jangama has a specific meaning in Vlrasalvism That 
which moves is known as Jangama or the moving form of 
Siva is known as Jangama as understood by the Virasai- 
valtes jj 

yada mimanusam kayah praiyaksa parameswarah 

According to Suprabodhagama Lord Siva himeself 
moves In the form of Jangama for the welfare of the whole 
universe. 23 

yassambhu salva lokanam muktyartham dharnltale 
caratva nara rupena samastsmai caratmane 

20. S. Sikhamani, 6 parlcheda, page 49, sl.3,4. 

21. ibid, Bparicheda. page 49, si. 1.6 6. 
1(2. Chandrajnanagama, p.2f, sl.30. 

23. Stfpnibodha gams, sl.2. 

Ptikurlkl Somanatha 65 

So, fer VIrasalvaites Jangsma is important as Lord Siva- 
Jangama accordirrg to Suprabodha means one who is free 
from sins from tlie life and deatfi cycle. It also refers to 
one wfio is not bound by karma or pasa and is without any 
attachments. In other words Jangama la "saksat Siva 

jankara jjananam duram duram gankaradgati nasanam 
makaran maranam nastam jangamam strayaksaratmakam 

Jangama may be swayam jangama, cara jangama or 
para jangama. 

One who observes sadacara Is swayam jangama. 

angikrutya sadacaram dhrutva jangama laksanam 
jnatva saddhama makhilam bhulva sujanavan suchih 
yuktva dustakarmanicayam muktva dourjanya laksanam 
hitva dustamati sastram srutva sadveda saivakam 
mate mekam samasritya krutva sallinga pujanam 
tatpurasthlta sad bhakta gruhe bhiksamadum mode 
tad bhlk^arjlta dravyesu astha hitya nirantaram 
savadhana manassamyaksatyajnano paro bhavet 
gatagstesu bhaktanam caracaranamoupacaraksm 
yah kurvan vaste nltyam sa eva swayam jangama 

Thus he is the person who observes sadacara, one who 
Knows all dharmas, one who Is a jnani, clear at heart, away 
from the mi&deeds and also one who always doea linga puja, 
lives on a'ms only, always speaks the truth, does not show 
any type of interest on any particular person is said to be a 
swayam jangama. 

Care Jangama is the one who practises shatsthala caras 
and wanders from place to place helping the devotee who 
wears bhasma and rudraksa. 


00 Smt. M. Omad9vl 

Para Jangama is the one who Fs able lo sacrifice the 
fruits of his actions and remains heppy. The worship of 
cere jangama is thousand times better than the worship of 
ail gods going on pilgrimage to the holy places. 

j4«arva tfrthabhisekscca sarva yajna vfdhanath 
sarva tirthabhisekscca cara puja gariyasi 
Fer an arsdhal<a jangama puja Is more worthy than Unga puja, 

Vibhuti or Bhasma 

Before starting the Siva puja the devotee Is supposed 
to apply the bhssma on his body. According to puranas, 
Siva after reducing fi/Janmafha to ashes, applied it on hia 
body- Even in the Vedic times bhasma from the yajna kanda 
believed to confer protection. 

The greatness of bhasma is described In the SIcanda as 

satads, bhasmam gruhyam Siva mantrabhimantrltam 
vidlrnam tanmulkha kshiptvamrtam pranairayojayatjj 

Chandrajoanagama describes the greatness of bhasma as 
follows ;- 

Bhasmajveti samamnatammavasyam tasya dharanat 
samsara aagaram tirtva kaivaiya phaia masnute 
bhasma sandharana deva sarva tirtha phalam bhavet 
bhasmedam eambhavsmjyeti staddhyansddhyata iswarah 
btiuta preta pisacssca Maha rogasca dussahah 
bhasma darsana matrena psiayate na samseyah 

24. Ciiandrainansgama, p^nca carya press, IVIysore, 1960, 
Panditha Kasinatha Sastry. 

25, Skanda Purana. Brahmottara Khanda, 3rd para, 57 sloka, 
page 156. Bangalore Press published 1947. Jayacam- 
araja Grsnthamsia 

Palkurikl Somanatha 67 

Bha^ma Is otherwise known as vibhuti or Aiswaryn. 


Virasalvaltes are expected to offer what ever they have 

to Lord Siva and then enjoy It as prasada of the Lord That 

substance which is offering to the Lord Is pure, so Is able 

to satisfy the hunger of the devotee. 

Padodaka Is the tirtha which a devotee takes after washing 
the feet of Jangama Since Vira«aivaltes consider Jangama 
to be the representatives of Siva, taking the tirtha after 
washing his feet Is equal to that of taking the tirtha after 
washing the feet of Lord Siva. 


Rudraksha Is very Important for a Virasaivalte. That 
which Is born from the eyes of Rudra is Rudraksha. Rudra- 
ksha is very essential for performing the mantra japa. 

According to the Siva Purana, Lord Siva does penance 
for a thousand years. When he opens his eves, two drops 
of water fall down from his eyes- From these drops the 
rudraksa trees supposed to have sprung up Because they 
were bo'n from the water which flawed from the eyes of 
Rudra, they are known as Rudrakshas-,^ 

divya varsa sahasrani mahesan! purnah pure 

tapah prakurva tassralstah msnseamyamya vaimem 

ewatantrena paresena lokopakruti karina 

lllaya paramessni caksurummilltam maya 

putabhyam caru caksurbhyam patita jala bindavah 

tatrasru bindave jata vrksa rudraksa sanjnitah 

bhumou geudotbhavamscakre rudrakshah sIva vallabhan 

26. Siva Purana, Vidyeswara Samhita, pages 410,2 411, 
Sri Jaya Chamarajendra Grantha Ratnamala, 

Q3 Smt. M. UmadevI 


Mantra is very important for Virasaivaltes. Pancaksari 
was prevalent even during tha time of Vedas. This mantra 
"Om Nameiislvaya," wlien observed very strictly, releasea 
ihe observer from tlie cycle of b^tflis and deatiis "Namah 
SIvaya" means saluting Siva. This Siva sabda is just men- 
tioned In Rigveda and mora frenuently In Ysjurveda. In 

tvamagne rudro asuro mahodivah 
apo rejanmadhvarasya rudram 
hotaram tvamagne pathamo angirarisi 
rdeva devanamabhavasstva^sakha 

The ferocious form of Agn! Is Rudra and the mild form 
Is Siva. So, Agnl is the basic ffirm of both Rfidra rnd Siva. 
This ferocious Rudra mentioned In the VedJi-f fcaduallv chan- 
ged Into the mild Siva form of later tim«s Then this Siva 
rupa evolved. Since that time oancaksarl mantra hi»s beco- 
me more orominant. Anybody can recite this mantra to 
attairi meksa. 

jjtasmat sarvaprado mantraso yam pancaksarah smrtah 
•tri bhi ssudraisca sanklrne dhiryate mukt! kanshibhih 
maha pataka vicchltyal sIva itvaksara dwayam 
alam namaskrlya yukto muktpya parlka'pate 
nasya diksa na homasca na samskaro na tarpanam 
na kalo nopedesasca sada sucirayam manuh 

Even Sri Adlsankara has expounded the greatness of Siva 
pancaksari by creltlug one sloka per syllable in the mantra. 

27. Sukta 45. mandala 1, Anuvaka 9, page 542, part 4, 
P'ubllahed 1S49. 

28. Skanda Purana, Brahmothara Khanda, page 4, Jayach- 
amara jendragrantha mala. 

Pa/kurlki Somanatha 69 

Lord Siva is supposed to be "pancabhutatmalca." That Is 
why Siva is supposed to have pancavarnas or five faces 
whicli are Icnown as Sadyojata Vemadeva, Aghora, isana and 

j^Dancalcsara samodeva panca bhutatma vigraha 
panaa vaktra meyesana vedaistatstvautu pragiyase 
srusti paiana sambaran stvam sada icuruse namah 
asta murta smara liara satyam yattiastutali 
pancatmilta tanurdeva brafimanaste pragiyate 
sadya vamo tathagiiore ise tatpuruse tatlia 

Ttie word Siva denotes Lord Siva and Patvati. 

3o«aiTinitya suitea manandamii<sraii purusah smrtah 
vaksrassaicti smrta melanam siva ucyate 

Thus we see that the Rudra represented by Agn! during 
RIgveda, became Siva by the time of Yajurveda. By the 
time of Agamas and Puranas Siva came to mean, one who 
gives utmost happiness or Fvlangalsprada and the utterance 
of Pancalcsari japa is maant for releasing the devotee from 
the cycle of births and deaths. Thus the mantra is very 
essential for Virasaivaites. 


Pancacaras have been descfibed in Candrajnanothafa 
Sivagama as follows : 
Hngacarassaadacara ssivacare stadhyavaca 
gana bhrtyacara kanca panca carah prakirtitah 

Thus Lingacara, Sadacera, Sivacara, Ganacara and Bhr- 
tyacara constitute the fine modes of conduct to be ebserved 

29. Skanda Purana, Avanti Khanda, 21st chap, page 210, 
Bangalore Press. 

30. Siva Purana, chap.6, page 315, Jayachamarajendra 

^i'O ^f"'^- M. Umadevl 

by the Virasaivaltes. Lingacara accepted the twenty one 
OJksakriyas. Sadacara is not coveting another's mcney, 
women. Listening to Siva mantra, not taiting food without 
doing puja to Istalinga and other rules are strictly observed 
bs a person observing sadacara. Sivacara is to lead a life 
In accordance with the rules of Sivacaras and Siva tattvas. 
Bhrtyacara is to consider cneseif a loyal servant to all Siva 
Bhaktas and consider nobody greater than a Siva Beakta. 

Ganacara is to take a promise for the protection of Siva 
dharma and Siva tatva. According to this Acara, a Virasai- 
vatte should not steal, should not hurt others, should not 
Indulge in a self-praise, and should not tell lies. In other 
words It is to purify one's own internal self. 

Thus these pancacaras are meant for guiding the society 
In accordance wfth the rules of dharma and to bring about a 
better society. Palkuriki Somanatha was a strict observer 
of these pancacaras and became an Ideal devotee of Lord 

Sat Sthalas 

According to Virasalvism Sat sthala? are the six poises 
of the divine, on the double manifestation as linga and anga. 
The supreme form Is considered existing as with the form and 
. also without from. The ultimate is the Sthala. The Divine - 
who is at the head of the creation in called Siva. Inherent 
in him there is a conscious force and a state of Self expan- 
sion- That Is, He can remain formless or with form accor- 
ding to his Leela. Siva who is sthala becomes two-Linga 
and Anga, Siva and JIva. Sakti is kala as related to LInga 
and Bhsktl as related to Anga, Bhakti is the spirit of self 
surrender and Worship, Suksmagama describes that Sat 
•thalas as follows: 

Palkurfkl Somanatha 7t 

3,bhakto maheswascaiva prasadi prana lingakah 
sarana ssiva lingaikya ssat sthalani hi parvati 

The first stage is bhalcta in which kriya diksa is given 
to the sadhaka. His nature according to Siddhanta sikha 
mani Is — 

jjSadacara ssive bhaktllinge jangama ekadhin 
lanchane bhakti bhakta stha'amanuttamaif) 

So the devotee at bhakta sthala will be a sadacari and 
a great devotee of Lord Siva. He looks upon both Linga 
and Jangama as equals. When the sadhana ripens he will 
be free from the pains of opposltes and will not have any 
attachment for the body. Suksmagama describes this stage 
as follaws] 

jjathalsa laksanam vakshys srunusva susamhita 
tyaktabhimano dehadou bhakta ityucyate Budhah 


IVIaheswara will have in mind with undisturbed conce- 
ntration on the Lord. He will have a control over his senses. 
S. SikhamanI describes this stage as follows : 

j^kevale sahaja dene nisnata sslva tatparah 
brahmadi sthana vimukho bhakto maheswarah smrtah 

Sripati Pandita describes about this sthala In hit wark 
Srikara Bhasya in the following manner ; 

31. Sukshmagama, Astama Patala, page 59, sl.32, by KasI- 
nath Sastry. 

32. S. Sikhamani, 10 parichoda. 

33. Sukshmagama Ashtama patala, p.59, si.33. 

34. S. SikhamanI, 10 parlcheda, 2nd sloka. 

72 Sme. m. Umadwl 

jjladvat avldya samputoddhulana lashanonmesana 
prakatamaia satva cidghana sadasiva tafva sashatkarah 
dvitiye maheswara sthala pradarsitah 

Prasad! Sthala 

Sripati Pandita describes this sthala in hia Srikara 
bhasya as 

3jkundalinya susumna margena cakra satkam bhitva 

Drahma randhra dese S[va yogabhyasa vasat sIva 

sakii samyoga laksanah trtiye prasadi ethaie prapancitah 

in the first two stages the body and the "indrlyas" will 
come under the control of the devotee. The mind la more 
subtle than tnese two and is very fickle. It is one among 
the "Antahkarana catustaya" depending on this mind the 
body functions. So after controlling the body and 
senses, the mind naa to be controlled. This, one has to 
achieve with yogabhyasa. Sukshmagama describes the 
prasadi stage as t 

jyCittam sthiram bhavedyasya sa prasadi bhavatyasi 

The nista bhakti achieved In bhakta and Maheswara 
Sthalas changes Into Avadhana Bhakti at Prasadi sthala with 
which he gets Oharana sakti. This sthala is described by 
S. Slkhamanl as 

agWanah prasada siddhyarteam nirmalajnana karanam 
Siva prasada svikurvan prasadi hyesa kathyata 

m the fourth sthala the devotee has Anubhava. He 

axperiences the Lard, s. Sikhamani descri bes this stage as 

35. Srikara Bhashya, Sripati Pandltha. " ~ 

36- Srikara Bhashya. Sripati Pandita. 

37. Sukshmagama, page 59, sloka 34. 

88- S. Sikhamani, 11 parlcheda, 8 alaka. 

Palkurlkl Somanatha 73 

„kito bhramara yogena bhramara bhavati dhrvam 
Siva bhakti ssiva yogena sivo bhavati niscitam 
lingam cidatmakam bral^ma tacchaktih ptana rupini 
tad rupam linga vijnani prana lingiti kathyate 

The caitanyatamake brahma of Lotd Siva will be in the 
rrom of prana in tha devotee. Sukshmagama defines this 
stage as 

4gtyaHtva jiva bhramam bhuvo lingatma prana lingakah 

When the prana lings loses "Jivabhrama" it becomes Linga- 
tma. Sripati pandlta describes this fact as 

sisysnugraheti sayano desikah swadeha mutsrujya 
chatia sariram pravisya tadiya nadi sodhana dwara 
tat kundalinyam sapta cakrasu sancarena siva vat 

sarva bhuvana gamana paroksha pradarsana rupascaturthah 
prana linga sthaie nirupltah 

Thereby the devotee constantly utters Pancakshari japa with 
which he attains "Sivanubhava" 

This Is described by Narada in his 54 Sutra as : 
4iguna rahita kamana rahitlam pratikahana vardhamana 
mavicchannamanubhava rupam 

Tha Jiva next crosses this pranalinga sthsia and reaches 
Sarana sthala where the Bhakti is full of Ananda. Suksma- 
gama describes this sihala as follows : 
42siva nityatva niscintah sanandarsanobhavet 

39. S. Sikhmaani, 12 paricheda, 3,4 sloka. 

40. Sukshmagema, page 59, sloka 35. 

41. Narada Bhakti Sutra, page 24, printed 1816, Bangalore' 

42. Sukshmagama. 

74 Smt M. Omadni 

Sarana In this state realizes the nityatva of Siva and 
feeis the happiness. At this state his realizaiion starts and 
he acquires jnana. Sarana means one who reailzes that 
Siva is the allpsrvading Almighty. S'ipati Pandita descrl. 
bes this in his Srilcara Bhashya as follows : 

438a prana pana pavana samyogatya 
susumna nadi madhya praiosiica citlcalamaya 
Icalyana viohutih iabdhva sada animadyasiswarca 
sampannah sarana sthale l<ath!tah 

At this stage the devotee geta the "saicshatltara" of 
Siva constantly and hence he is in a state of Bliss and free 
from fear of anything in this world. Yajnavaikya describes 
this Ananda as^^: 
tadyatha priyaya striya sam parlsvatlto na bahyam 
kincana vedananantaram eea mevayam purusah 
prsjnenatmana samparisvatke na bh bahyam vedananata- 

The last stage Is the Aikya sthala. The Bhakta In this 
stage does not feel or think about himself, l-ie crosses the 
bonds of Samsara and Aikya sthala where he realles himself 
as one with the Lord Siva. This stage is not attained with- 
out passing through ail tho previous stages. Sripati Pandita 
describes this stage s*^g^ 

earienuriya manah pranadhi bahyabhyantara 

vastu parlinana sunya mano 
vllayatmakormattavasta prapti satkohaikya 

sthale abhldhiyate 

43. Srikara Bhashya, 2nd pads, 1 adhlkarana. Bangalore, 

44. Brlhadarenyakam, 4th chap. 3 Brahmana, 21 sr sloks. 
46. Srikara Bhashya. 3rd chap, 2nd pada, lat Adhlkaranft, 

5th sutra (Bangalore Prats 1936, editor Hayavadtne 

PalkurikI Somanatha 76 

The lame idea is expressed in Kattiopanisad where it is taid4g1 

indriyebhyah param mano manasassatatvamuttamam 
satvadadhi mahantma mahatovyaldamuttanrtam 

Thus this mind is better than the indriya>, Buddhf Is higher 
than mind, IVIahat is higher than Buddhf, Atma is higher than 
IVIahat and is the best, when Jiva crosses all these stages- 
and casts off his ignorance or maya This is describad well 
in the sat sthaias. Salcshmsgama describes this as follows; 

4,vyal(tabhimano dehadou bhakta ityucyate budhaih 
tacclttamamaiam yasya savai maheswarah smrtah. 
cittam sthiram bhavedyasya saprasadi bhavedyasya 
saprasadi bhavatyasou. yulctva jiva bhramam bhuyo 
lingatma prana lingalcah. sIva nityatva niscitam 
ssananam ssarano bhavet. sivajivobhaya bhranfi rahitaac- 
Bil<ya ucyate. 

When Bhal(ta reaches the Ailcya sthaia after crossing 
the five sthaias he loses his "Astiva" and becomes one 
with the Lord Siva. Sripati describes this state as^g i 

vidyavldya lashana niratisaya niranjana 

nirvifcara niravayava paramaicasa rupa parlpurna 
Siva tatva sashatkaranubhavena pracandatapa madhya 
nil(shipta nirvata niscaiita i<arpura dipavat ithitim 
vyapohy sarirendriya manah pranadi bahyattavastha 
praptisatkhyaikya sthaia abhidhlyate. evam vidha 
aakti patesu pipiiika markats pakshi go metsyakacchapa 
nyaya swabhavika jivatyam nivrttipurvaka praptireva 
moksha ityupadisyate 

46. Kathopanisad, 2nd chap, 6th valli, 7th sloka. 

47. Suksmagama Ashtama Patala, page 59. 

48. Srlkara Bhashya, 3rd chap, 2nd pada Ut adhikarani, 
6th autra. 

76 ^rnt M. Umad^vi 

To reach this stjge or.Jy camplete dsvotion to the Lord, 
and detachment to ai; tho external objects inc«ud:ng body, 
indriyas, mind is essantial. It is only ihen that the bhakta 
can become one with the Lord Siva. 

Anubhava Sutra describes the Bhst^Ci at these different 
stages as: 

•ikyanga sarananga prana I'nganga prasadanga 
maheswaranga bh3ictvang=i, samarasa bhai^ti, anrjohava 
bhal<tiananda bhai<ti, avadhar^a bhakti, nhta bhaicti, 
sraddha bhakti, mahalinga, prasada tinga cara iln^ie, 
sIva linga, guru h'nna, acara lingadi sat sthaia 
linganubhava sutra vijaniyat 

Thus we see the different stages of Bhakti and different 
lingas at different sthalas. ^ 

in the beginning of the spiritual effort, there i's distin- 
ction between the worshipper and the worshipped i.e., bet- 
ween bhakta and deva or upasaka.49 These are 
technlually known as anga and llnga. This distinction grad- 
ually disappears and the devotee is going to become Integr- 
ally united with the linga due to his ceaseless effons. This 
process is divided into six stages or sat sthalas. in the first 
sthaia that Is bhakta sthaia the guru sisya relationship 
begins. The disciple has devotion for his guru to acquire 
the knowledge JO The guru Initiates the disciple for a 
change over, of his mental facilities from objeetive to subj- 
ective universe. The symbolic linga Is given to him with 
the instruction to be conscious of the divinity In all the 
actions and thoughts. Hfs conscious efforts towards prog- 

49. Sunya Sampadans, p.3. 

W Basaveswara Vaoanalu Sangraha Samikaa, page 300' by 
Badaia fUmayya. 

Palkurlkl Somanatha 77 

ress in these spiritual practices removes and cleanses him of 
sin, stage by stage It is ordained thst the worship of llnga 
is spiritual. Rituals and performances should be constant 
until sell-enlightenment is attained J, Ihuslirga Siva that 
Is Siva as Linga, with form is Istaiinga attainable by the 
waking ' state. This linga further modifies itself into two. 
The Acara Linga which develops bhakii and bhaktalssthale, 
and the guru linga which becomes Mahesa Sthala 

Siva with or without form is prana iinga, attainable by 
the soul in the dream state in the subtle form bhoganga. 
This also modifies into two. The Siva linga auspicious in 
which the Bhoganga focuses an exclusive concentration and 
become-; p'a-adl sthala, the cara linga, the active are with 
which, when «he bhoganga gets identified in experience it, 
becomes the prana lifiga, 

Siva without form Is Bhava linga attainable by the Soul 
in the ntate of deep sleep, the casual form of yogsngs. 
This too modifies itself into two. The Prasada linga by 
deep meditation In which the yoganga geis established In 
the Sarsna sthala and the JViahalinga which the -oganga 
attains Aikya sthala. 

Thfi bhakta is required to offer his devotion to Istalinga 
which la conferred by the guru. Ho is requited to lead a 
pure and and noble life. The devotion at this stage la 
known es Naialhika BhaktI. As the devotee is progressing 
In his spiritual path he realises the temptations In nature 
threugh the worship of the Linga, the sins and temp*ations 
the objects wiii be redeemed and prasada will be obtained. 
Here th<i devotee will pay his undit/ided attention to Ista 

51. Sri Basaveswara Centenary Commemoration Volume, 
published 1967, page 339. 

78 Smt M. UmadBvi 

llnga. This stage Is the Prasad! sthala. Then the devotee 
withdraws his attention from the external objects and conce- 
ntrates as self introspection and realises that his individual 
self is none other than the universal self that Is the Linga. 
This the Prana linga sthaia. The devotee experiences in 
his own self the divine splendour and completely surrenders 
himself to the Linga and enjoys the pure delight in Prasada 
linga. in the final stage even the minor distinction between 
Anga and Linga disappears completely. As a river mingles 
with river, the pure anga becomes one with God j, 

This state of unique consciousness or a state of iden- 
tity with god is known as Ailiyasthala. The Bhaktl at this 
stage Is known at the Samarasa bhakti. 

Thus we see how in Virasaivism gradually passes thro- 
ugh these six stages to realise God and become one with 


The Virasalva religion was not established by any Indi- 
vidual. This religion was much older than the pancacaryas, 
Basaveswara etc ^^ But there is a belief that for the spread 
of thts religion, the five viraiaiva gotra kartas, that is Vira, 
Nandi, Bhrung! Vrisa and Skanda have evolved from the five 
sadyojata, vamadeva, isana, tatpurusa and Aghora faces of 
Lord Siva. 

Accordiug to Saivagamamas Suprabodha and Swayam- 
bbu, these five getrakartas have taken different names in 

52. Basavannavara Satsthaia vacanaglau, p.249 V 929 edi- 
ted by Prof. S.S. Basavannal Dharwar 1962. 

53. Vliasalva dharma, page 31, published by SIvanubhava 
Samlrhi, Hyderabad. 

Palkariki Somanatha 79 

different yugas for the spread of Virasslva religion j^ 

sadyojatasca prathamo vamadevo dwitiyakah aghorastu 
trrlyasca tatpurusaaca caturthakah isanah panca 
mascetl mukhani nama sarvasah tanyanani gotrani 
vedoktani na samaeaah viro nandl tatha bhringi* 
vraasca skanda evaca matswarupatsomutpannah 
panca getradhikarlnah 

Their krtayuga names Ekaksahara, Dwayakahara, Thtla- 
kshara, Caturakshara, and Pancakshara. Their tretayuga 
names were Ekavaktra, Dwivaktra, Trivaktra. Caturvaktra, 
and Pancavaktra. 

Their dwaparayuga namea are Renuka, Daruka, Gajak- 
arna, Ghantakarna, and Viswekarna. Their Kaliyuga 
namea are Ravana siddha, Maruia siddha, Ekorama, Pandita* 
radhya and Viswaradhya. 

Mulapurusa Krtayuda Tratayuga Dwaparayuga Kattyuga 

1, VIra Ekakshara Ekavaktra Renuka Revana Siddea 

2, Nandl Owayakshara Owivaktia Oaruka Maruta Stddba 

3, Bhringi Triyakahara Triviktra Qajakarna Kkorama 

4, Vraa Catwakthara Caturvaktra Ghantakarna Panditaradpa 

5, Skandha Paneatahanka Paneavatio Vtawakarna Vlawaradlya 

These different Acaryaa establlshedd Ifferent matte at 
various places In India for the spread ef VIresaivism Revana- 
slddhamatam was at Kolanupaka In Taiangana region of 
Andhra Pradesh. Marula Siddha established Matt at Ujj- 
alni in Karnatska. Ekorama established the matt at Hlma- 
vat kedar in North India. Pandltaradhya established a matt 
at Srisailam in Andhra region and Viswaradhya established 

54. Suprabodhagama 

80 Smt 191. Umatttvt 

his Matt at VaranasI in Uttar Pradesh 55 The Kolanupaka 
mult was transferred to Balehonnuru in Karnataka during 
the time of Renulcacarya. 

Thus wa see the five pancacaryas establishing the five 
respective pithams at different regions to establish and to 
propagate this religion among the people. And this religion 
reached Its zenith during the time of Basaveswara in the 
twelth century in Karnataica. He brought the renaissance in 
the fundamentals of fhis religion. 


Sfvavoga is the process of attaining oneness with Siva 
who is the supreme Reality. For ihis purpose nnental war- 
ship of the Lord is essenllal worship peiformed by the Sadh- 
aka or devotee. Thus Sivayoga pradlpika says "one who 
enjoys by physical acts which proceed developing Into lnte> 
rnal worship." This external worship of Siva includes the 
wearing of Ista linga on the pertan. For this purpose the 
devotee has to undergo the Diksa ceremany before he Is 
ready for the Linga on his person. This ceremony provides 
the aspirant with an Instrument to remove the bonds that 
imprison the soul in the body. The guru imparts the full 
knowledge and central truth of the path. He communicates 
to him something af his own power of consciousness. This 
Is the "Sadhana Sakti" that is alive with the tapas of the 
guru and once It enters tha being of the disciple, it comme- 
nces hit sadhana and leads him anwards. Tha disciple is 
required to have faith, devotion, discrimination, gratitude 
and zeal to obtain diksa. This diksa ceremony is of three 
kinds. Veda, mantra and kriya. These three kinds go with 
Bhava linga. Prana linga and Istalinga respectively. Thus 

55, Kalyana Vljayamu, by Dr. IVIudlgonda SIvaprasad, page 
97. published by Hyderabad VIrasslva Samajam. 

P»/fcur/ki Somanatha §t 

Dfksa Is a physical discipline which destroys the three Imp- 
rltiss, Anava, Mayiya and karma malas. The five elements 
ef Siva yoga are "Sivajnana or knowledge of Siva bhakti. 
or devotion to Siva, Sivadhyana or contemplation of Siva, 
Siva vrata w performance of Saiva rites meant for spiritual 
salvation and Siva caranas or worship of Siva The last is 
the most essential one in which the other four are contained. 
In the performance of Siva puja, mantra yoga, Laya yoga, 
Bhaktl yoga, karma yoga and jnana yoga are involved. 

Linganga Samarasya 

The unity ef Linga and Anga is the identity of Siva and 
JIva. This is technicalty called Linganga samarasya. The 
unity of the finite self anga with the universal self linga can 
be achieved by following the path of devotion. The devo- 
tion manifests Itself in different levels. They are Sraddha, 
Naisthika. Aradhana, Anubhava. Ananda and Samarasa. 

Sraddha Bhakti 

This is the main motive force of the spiritual discipline. 
it progresses from simple sincere failh to the place of Nai8< 
thika or confirmed feeiing of devotion to the Lord. The 
next higher step is Avadhana bhakti which Is self awareness 
In that state af devotion. These three are in the first divisi- 
on of the Satsthala scheme af devotion. In the next stage 
Bhakti develops the power partially, experiencing the divine 
life and is therefore called Anubhava that is the Initial state 
ef experience of tha divine. Further it grows into Ananda 
bhakti In which there Is real joy of divine life ultimately it 
rises to the full and last experlece of divine life af being 
one with tha divinity. This is Samarasa Bhakti. The follo- 
wers of these six levels of Bhakti are respectively Bhakta, 
Mahasa, Frasadi, Pranallnga, saran and Aikys. 

32 ^'"f- ^- Om909\n 

Virasaiva Siddhanta 

Virasaivism is also callad as Sivedvalta because It holds 
that the ultimate reality is Siva, the all inclusive universal 
being In whom the entire multiplicity of the objective world 
has its being and springs up from him at his will. 

According ta some scholars the Kasmir Sivadvaita of 
ninth century with a few changes has deen converted Into 
Virasaivism. Thair Siddhanta is Siva Visistadvalta. In this, 
Siva Is Sslcti and at his will Sakti creates the world. This 
Siva is Ananta without any end and Is swayampral(asa. 
They da not accept the Mayavada but say that the world is 
Reality. Maya It accepted as one of the tattvas. This 
religion is also called Sarva Sruti Saramala as it maint^ ns 
the consistent Interpretation of ali conflicting statements 
found in the Srutis In the light of dualistic cum monastic 
view, it asserts that every thing is unity from or e point 
of view but mjltipliclty from another point The Individual 
is different from Siva at the empirical level but is one with 
Him when he unites with him on liberation. Just as the 
seed is one but stem, branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits 
which spring from it are many. So the dualism cum monism 
is the real philosophy of Virasaivism. 

The central ideal of this philosophy is that the Lord is 
indlstinguishabie from SaktI. That in the original stete. 
Siva alone existed and ail the manifold world of matter and 
life existed in Him, In a subtle form, wholly indistinguish- 
able from Him, He separated the living beings who were 
associated with different icinds of icarma and also manifested 
the material world in varioua forms so that living beings 
might purge themselves of ali Impurities by the fulfilment 
of the law or Itarma and ultimately return to the transcend- 
ental by the Qrace of the Qod and become one with Him. - 

ftlkwlk! Somanatfia §3 

Bhedbahada vada 

The relation bntween God and the world Is one of 
Ideentity In differences. The ultimate Reality Is one of unity 
in multipliclry. Both unity and multiplicity are equally real 
and eternal because it always exists potentially in the power 
of the Lord. Sripati Pandlta is of the opinlan that unity 
and multiplicity are the two states of Reality. Unity is an 
unmanlfested state and multiplicity in the evolved state. 
The difference between Siva and Jiva is that the former is 
the object of worship and possess unlimited Icnowledge 
whereas the latter is the worshipper with limited knowledge. 

According to VIrasaivsm the Saktl of the Lord has mani- 
fested itself In two forms — Mahamaya or Urdhvamaya and 
Adhomaya. It Is the mahamaya that evolves Itself Into the 
phenomenal universe. It does not produce any illusion in 
the substratum or abode of consciousness. It Is the Adho- 
maya that hides the true nature of the self and limits the 
five powers of the Lord in the lower order of the creation 
which consists of the thirty principles or tattvas. The word 
Maya is not mithya or Illusion but is an Intermediate agency 
of the Lord for the creation of the world and the plurality 
ef the souls. 

Siva remains unchanged In himself, appears In two 
■ forms, Linga or Pure consciousness and Anga or individual 
Self or Jiva. As the Supreme Lord Is bifurcated as Linga 
and Jiva, so his Sakti or energy is also bifurcated into two. 
Saktl Is called Maheswari, One part of it Is aasoclcated 
with Linga and the other with Jiva. According to Vlrasalva 
philoaophy Saktl er Bhaktl are the two modes of different 
spheres of activity. Saktl la pravrtti and Bhakti Is NIvrtti. 
SIva'a Innate power la wholly responsible ror the entire crea- 
tion ef the universe and the same power reacting in the 
individual leedicg to the final liberation Is called Bhakti. 
in reality there fa no difference between Safcti and Bhakti. 

§4 Smt. M. Umadtvl 

The first primary llrmiting condition which reduces tlia 
universal consciousness to a limited aspect of Anu is Anava. 
It Is the outcome of the Icchasakti of the Supreme. It la 
innate ignorance. Nsxt Maylyamala, another limiting con> 
dition. it Is that which brings about consciousness of diff. 
erence. This Is the outcome of Jnana SaktI. The other 
Impurity which Is closely associated with it is karma mala. 
This Is Ihe result of the performance of worldly duties and 
its results. The self is covered with these impurities. 
Anava or Innate ignorance, Mayiya, and Karnna melas. It 
Is by these malas or impurities that the individual is in bon> 

The embodied soul though in reality is identical with 
the principal universal conclousness does not appear as 
such owing to the three limitations, Anava Mayiya and 
Karma, with the right mode of appropch, both external and 
Internal perfect bliss, peifect knowledge and perfecT autho- 
rship can be obtained. In order to achieve liberation, the 
aeers have prescribed several ways and means according to 
the ability of the Sadhaka. These are called Upayas. The 
aim of all these upayas Is gradual dispossession of the 
animal nature and cultivation of higher human values The 
aim of these upayas is to get rid of the three maias or 
Impurities that obstruct the light of consciousness that is 
chaitanya i e, Atman. The main upayas that are mentio- 
ned In Siva Sutras are Sambhavopaya. Saktopaya and Anvo- 
paya. Paratattva or Supreme Reality is conceived as both 
with form and without form. This ultimate is the Sthaia, 
tha Divine who is at the head of the creation. Inherent in 
him there ia a conscious force or vimsa sakti. Self involu- 
tion and state of Self expansion, in tha former condition 
the supreme is unmanifest in the other he is manifest. That 
ia pardsiva remains formful according to the mood of hl9 

Palkurlkl Somanatha 85 

Sakti. That is his L!la. Siva who Is Sthala becomes In his 
divine play two-linga and anga. Siva and jiva sakti which 
Is inalienable is kala as related to llnga and bhaktl as related 
to anga. Bhaktl means self surrender and worship and 
complete devotion to the Lord 5^ 

Thus the Divine Reality admits both the states of form 
and non form. 

The Philosophy of Saivism 

The Saivism recognises thirty principles of tattvas. To 
start with, we have the five gross elements or panca mahe- 
bhutas-Ether. air. fire, water and earth. The earth possess 
the qualities of sound, touch, colour, taste and odour. 
Air lacks colour, taste, and odour. Ether has sound alone. 
These qualities are called tanmatras. They are subtle as 
contrasted with the elements which are said to possess them 
and they cause the gross elements. Besides these we have 
BuddhI, Ahankara, manas, and citta which constitute the 
internal organs. 

Mule prakrti Is itself a product of Asuddha mays which 
evolves into three principles, Kala, Niyatij Kala. Kala dr 
time is an independent principle. Niyati or destiny Is that 
principle which sees that every soul has its due In the 
matter of enjoyment of its appropriate fruit. Ksia is an 
instrument whereby the darkness that envelops soul Is rewp- 
ved partly. One side it evolves round Mula prakitl, and 
another into vidya or knowledge, Raga or attachment. 
These five kala, nlyati, kala, vIdya. and raga are called tht 
five Shaaths or pence kancukas. It la as enveloped In these 
and endowed with five kiesas that is avidya or ignorance, 
ego, raga or attachment, dwesha or aversion, abhlnivesa or 

66. Basaveswara Centenary Commemeration Volume. 

8^ Smt M. Umadwi 

clinging on to life that soul is ready to have experience of 
Mula prakrtl. The five [ Iclesas are together known as Pum- 
stva mala and the soul in this condition is called Purusa 

Five Pure Principles 

The pure principles are five. Sivatattva is the first of 
these and cauaes the rest-Sakti, Sadsslva, Iswara, and 
Suddha vidya. Siva tattva Is all pervasive and eternal. It 
Is the cause of other pure principles. It is Identifien with 
Siva himself. It is an evolution through Mahemaya or pure 

Virasaivism and Saiva Siddhanta 

Both these schools of thought accept the Saivagamas 
as the authorised texts. But they Indicate different attem- 
pts to realise the ultimate Reality i.e. Siva. The ultimate 
Reality is known as LInga In Virasaivism and Peti in Saiva 

LInga is derived from the roots "LI" and "gam". Gam 
to go that is from which the creation starts and LI to absorb 
means in which ail the things merge finally.^, 

tlyate gamyate yatra yena sarvacaracaram 
tadetailinga mityuktam llnga tattva visardaih 

Thus it is a source and causa of evolution and dissolu- 
tion. This ultimate Realily is Sthala. Sunya and Niskala 
lings In Virasaivism. Metaphysically this sthala is absolute 
which Is the source of all evolution and Into which all the 
things ate finally absorbed.;, 

ekameva parambrahma saccldananda iakaanam 
Siva tattvam sivacaryah sthalamityahu radayat 

67. Sivanubhava Sutra. Chap. III. ' 

68. Kiivalya ^ata, page 3, sU 13. 

Palkurikl Somanatho 87 

j^yatfado'j sthiyate viswam prakritam pourusam yatah 
Ijyatd punarante ca sthalem tatprocyate tatah 

Pati is derived from the root Pa protector, or Lord. 
CandrEJnat^agams describes the supreme Lord as Pati because 
He is the Lord of aii. 

ggbrahmadya sthavaranamtasca dfeva devasya sulinae 
pasavah parilcirtyante samsara vasa vartinah 
tesam patitvadvisesah sivah pasupati smrtah 

The Absolute is Hara and is, also Icnown as Siva. Hara 
because IHe removes the bonds of the souls and relieves 
them from cycle of birth and death ^^ 

haranam haniruddhista bhogesvabhiratatmanam 
pudgalanam sanairgatva ting^m samhrtya vegatah 

He is also l(nown as Siva because he is pure and supreme 
bliss. Both the systems accept God (Pati or Linga) Is 
immanent and transcendent, He is eternal omniscient and 
'supreme bliss. He is smaller than the smallest and bigger 
than the biggest. He is not affected by the effect of the 
whole cosmos. 

Saiva Siddhanta accepts the three categories that It 
Pati, Pasu and Fasa and accept^ the three causes for the 
creation of the world. Virasaivism accepts only two causes, 
material and instrumental. Siva creates the world through 
Icchasalctl. According to Saiva siddhanta, souls are eternal 
entities and are different from God. According to Virasat* 
vism souls are in reality pure, eternal, omniscient and of 
the nature of Siva Himself- 

59. Slvanubhava Sutra, chap, ii, sl.4. 

60. Chandrajnanegsma, Ktiyapalt, pataga 1sts!.10-11. 

61. Matanga parmsswaragama, Vidyapada pati patala, cl.33. 

88 Smt M, Omadwl 

gjatmayam kevalah soddhah sivasyamgah sadamalah 
nityo nlranjana satah tasmadatmasvayam sivah 

Pasa is recognised as an eternal entity in Salva Siddh- 
anta. Pasas are hindrances to enjoy the supreme bliss. 
The three pasas are Anava, Karma, and Maya are eternal. 
Virasaivism also accepts the three impurities. Siva owing 
to his ewn sport contracted his pOiwer and bocame JIva or 

Pasa is an eternal entity In Saiva Siddhanta while acco- 
rding to Virasaivism the eternal entity is Siva himself but 
pasa will come Into existence only according to his sport. 

Thus Virasaivism pays an equal importance te Bhaicti, 
Jnana and Kriya systems, it aims at an all round develop, 
ment and complete purity of the individual. Hence Astava- 
rana, Pancacaras, and satsthalas are introduced. The Pane- 
acaras enable the individual te lead a life dignity befitting 
the highest human principle. The Astavaranas help the 
individual in his spiritual pursuit. The sat sthalaa help in 
the spiritual development. Thus Virasaivism is a unique 
contribution to the philosophic and religious fields of India, 

Saivism in Andhre region 

The other varieties of Saivam which flourished in And> 
hra region, besides VIrasaivam are Pisupata, Kalamul(ha, 
Kapalikas. etc. Among them pasupeta type Is the oldest. 
The founder of this variety is supposed to be Lakuiisa Siva- 
carya. According to histerians he lived in the Ist century. 
The worship of Siva existed even during the time of Satava- 
hanas. Hala in his Saptasati did Pasupati stuti In his first 
Oatha and Gouri stutl in his last gatha. This Pasupata 
religion has been described even by Patanjali in his IVIaha- 
62. Sivwtibhtva Sutra, Adhli(arana V, $1.3. ' 

Palkuriki Somanatha 89 

bhasya. The followers of this branch of Saiva accept Karana, 
Karya, Vidhi, Yoga, Dukhanta. They believe In VidhI and 
Dalvanirnaya or God's will. Accerding to them Vidhi doesn't 
depend on Individuals. Papa or Punya but on Gods will 
only. Thus it differs from other branches of Saivism. The 
Pasupatas observe peculiar ways of life. They take ash 
bath, or bhasma snana thrice daily, sleep on bhasma bed 
only, pray loudly, and dance Irregularly. 

Saivism was at its peal( during the time of the Kaltati- 
yas. The Kaicatiya rulers were mostly Saivaites and encou- 
raged sculpture, literature and other fine arts for propagating 
Saivism. They constructed temples liice Swayambhu temple, 
thousand pillar temple for Lord Siva. Pailcuriki Somanatha 
lived during their reign only. Somantha who was supposed 
to be one of the revivers of Saivism, wrote many works on 
Saivism and principles of Saivism on the fine arts side also 
the dance concerned with tandava and hasya of Siva, has 
developed. The prerana tandava of this period is very 

Saivism with its various "Sampradayas" existed even 
during the time of other rulers like Satavahanas, Caiukyas, 
rulers of Vishnu kundina dynasty etc. After the Satavahanas, 
the Ikshvakus ruled Andhra region. They were the worshi- 
ppers of Skanda «r Kumaraswamy. We find the names of 
many klnga of this time as Skanda. Next came the kings 
of Vishnukundina dynasty. Though they were the followers 
•f Valdika dharma, still they were great devotees of Lord 
Siva. There is an inscription In which it is stated that, 
Vikramendra Varma, son of Visnukundi Bhattar varma dona- 
ted Regonra village to Somagirlshwars matha. We find 
many Siva temples in Andhra by this time. There are many 
evidences that by seventh century, Pasupata, Kalamukha 
and Kapalika sampradayas cf Saivism have spread In Andhra 

90 ^f"^' M. UmadevI 

reoion The Calukya kings ruled Andhra after Vishnukundi- 
Pa rufers. They were also great devotees of Lord Siva. 
During their reign many P&supata SIvacaryas came from 
different parts of the country for spreading Pasupata religion 
here. They were the "sthanapatis" in many of the Siva 
temp'es. Among them Purusha Siva Sivacarya was very fern, 
oue. He was the disciple of Tersmbi Brahma Sivacarya. 
This Terambi was one of the Pasupata Saiva pithams. At 
prssent this place is in Gwalior and is known as Terahl. 

The socond Vijayadhya of Calukyas was supposed to be 
a parama l\Aaheswara. After hit conquests over the Rasht- 
rakuta kings he constructed 108 Siva temples. 

The Kalamukha and Kapalika samprydayas flourished 
even during the seventh century A.D. 

The Kalamukhas closely resembled the Fasupatas and 
are often described as the exponents of Lakula Saivism. 
Kalamukha reached Its zenith In Karnataka In 9th and 10th 
centuries. SuggaladevI queen of Jaislmha 11 in 1029 A.D., 
donated some land to Brahmarasi Panditha of the Pasupata 
school for worship and offerings to Marasingeswara of 
Devapur and also for maintaining ascetica and students 
there. The Kalamukhas were in charge of many mataa and 
temples and were known as Raja gurus. They were well 
established in Belgame where they held the headships of 
Pancalinga, Dakshina Kedareswara, Hariharadltya and varl* 
ous other temples and Matta. Srisaiam was a famous Saiva 
centre and seems to have been the headquarters of the Kaia* 
mukhaa of South. The Kelamukha and Pasupata teachers 
were usually learned people and far centuries received the 
raepect and adoration from the princes and the peopla equ> 

Patkurlkl Somanatha 91 


They were another branch of Saivaites who wore kapala 
or man's skull, and observed the Pasupata principlei. Ano- 
ther name for these people was Aghorapathas. Their prin. 
ciples were extremely rigid and very difficult to practice. 
They usually wore a kapala around their neck and were 
naked and applied ash on the whole body. They even ate 
human flesh, excretion and drank wine. They worshipped 
Bhalraveswara and his lady Candika in their "ghora rupa." 
Sometimes they used to perform human sacrifices to please 
these godc. They discarded the world and kept dreadful 
things around them wearing skull necklaces, they usually 
moved about In the burial grounds. Once Srisailam was 
supposed to be their key place. Their Vedante darsana ia 
known as Maheswara darsana and their preacher was Soma 


The Sakteyas were also closely associated with the 
Pasupatas. The different form of Sakti were worshipped by 
these people. Sakti is considered to be the "Sarvajagan- 
matha". According to Salvism, Sakti is Sivapatnl. Among 
all the forms of Sakti, Kali Is the most ferocious form and 
became very popular. The other forms of Sakti are Lalitha, 
goddess of beauty, and Durga. godeess of l\^ountain8. The 
tantras form the basis for this Sakti cult. It also gives 
much importance to mantras. According to this system, 
the all ^ pervading, omnipotent, omnipresent Siva becomes 
active, only when he is united with the Sakti. Thus comes 
•ut the creation. Sakti is thus Prakriti. Iccha, Jnana, and 
Kriya are her powers. Sakti is of two forms. Stbala form 
and sukshma form. The Sakteyas accept the thirty six tatt- 
vas and divide tiiem into Siva tattvas, vidya tattvas and 
Atma tattvas. Maya is one of th« vidya tattvas. They 

92 i?mt M. UmadBvi 

accept even Jivanmukti. According to them one who reali- 
ses the Atman becomes JIvanmukta- They accept Bhaktl 
as ane of the Sadhanas for iVIoksha. 

Spread of Saivism In Andhra 

We have already seen how Saivism came to prominence 
by seventh century A.D. All the cults of Saivism like Pasu- 
pate. Kalamukha, Kapalika have spread during the time of 
Calukyas The Pallavs king IS^ahendravaman of 7th century 
A D. In his "Matta vilasa prahasana," described ail these 
cults. Even the chir^ese oilgrim Hleuntsang described the 
Kapalikasas the peop!ewho wore skull necklaces and bones, 
and lived in caves, burial grounds etc. In Neilore district 
we find it-e temples of Bhairava and Durga and the place 
got the name as Bhairava kona. Probably this place must 
have been the centre of Kapalikas. But Pasupata cult gai* 
ned much importance than other cults, They were in charge 
of the IMathas and were the heads of the temples. 

In tenth century A.D. Rajarajanarendras son, Rajendra 
Chola became the emperor of both Andhra Dravida kingdnms. 
At that time there were closer connections between both 
the kingdoms. Many Saivaites came from Tamiihadu and 
settled In Andhra region and performed arcanae in the Siva 
temples. Many Salva stories about Siva lilas came Inte 
prominence. IVIany rich people donated villages, money 
for the maintenace of the temples. Thus between 10th and 
14th centuries Saivism enjoyed the maximum reputation and 
glory in Andhra. During this time only, three Brahmin 
Seivaite preachers were born. They were Sripati Pandita, 
IWallikarjuna Pandita. and IMancana Pandita. They gave 
much Importance to the worship of Siva Those who did 
not worship Siva were known as Bhavas. IWIany brahmins 
iMCflma staunch worshippers of Siva and were kntwn ti 

Palkurlkl Som$n$tha 93 

Aradhya Brahmins. We seldom find such type of Aradhyas 
anywhere in India. They eccept Vedic princlplds and do 
not discard yajnopavlta but wear llnga on thair bodv. Next 
came the Kakatiyas and we have already seen how the kings 
worked for the establishment of Salvism in Andhra. The 
kings worked for the development of not only Saiva religion 
but also dance, scrulpture, literature In the Salva angle. 
Thus we get the best Siva temples, dances, and Saiva liter- 
ature during the time of Kakatiyas. Palkuriki Somanatha 
belongs to this period and we know his inlluence on reli- 

Chapter IV 

An Introduction of Somanatha 

What is a Bhasya? 

Most of the Sanskrit sastras. grammatical worka and 
philosophical worirs are In the form of Sutras or Karikas. 
Great schorars write commentaries that Is explanatory works 
en these works. This commentary is known as Bhasya. 
These Bhasyas are written for Vedanta, Yoga, and other 
standard authentic works- Thus patanjaii wrote Mahabha- 
sya to Panlni's Ashtadhyayi, — a grammatical woik. 

in the philosophic field also many religious refermars 
or gurus who established different faiths of knowledge wro- 
te Bhasyas or Commentaries on Brahma sutras written by 
Vyasa in their own fight. Adisankara who established the 
advaita Siddhsnta wtote Sankara Bhasya on Brahma Sutras 
In the advaita way estabiishing his theory — Brahma Satysm 
Jagan mithya. 

Ramanuja who formulated the Visistadvalta philosophy 
wrote Sri Bhasya on Brahma sutras estabiishing his theory. 
The Saiwaite Bhasya on the Brahma Sutras was written by 
the great scholar, philosopher, Nilakanta Bhagava'pada and 
^is famous work Srikara establishes the Sivadvaita philoso- 
phy of Brahma Sutras perhaps a Bhasya can be called an 
authentic interpretation of any Sastra. 

Any philosophic faith usually deplete three divisions | 
Ca) Cetmoiogy 

Ptikurlkt Somanatha 95 

(b) Rituals 

(c) Moral and Social application 

All tiie above said Bliaiyas, whettior thoy rsflect advaita 
dvaita or visistadvaita faiths, deal more witti cosmology. 

Tills cosmology deals with the origin of the universe' 
tite creator, the relation between the creator and the crea> 
tion, the individual Seul, and the Supreme Soul. 

Rituals are the formal observations, in any particular 
religious faith and this varies from Vaisnavism to Saivism to 
other religions. 

Morals are the general principles which should be obs- 
erved by any person and these are found to be common In 
atl the faiths. 

What Is Somanatha Bhaaya ? 

Though palkuriki Somanaiha's work says It is a Bhasya, 
still the author does not deal much w*th cosmology but fays 
stress on the rituals that is the panca caras mainly. This 
is a clear proof from the statement the author gives at the 
end of every chapter of Somanatha Bhasya— Sri Vira Mahe- 
swara saroddhara — sampurnam. A detailed explanation of 
these words may be examined. 


Vira need not be a hero In the real sense. In VJrasal- 
vlsm. Vira means a sadhaka, who practises the "Slvajlvai- 
kya vidya— visabde nocyate vidya aiva Jivaikya bodhlnl tas- 
yam ramata yassalva vira ityabhidhiyate. 


\9 thet which Is canoerned w'th l^ord SIv«, 

96 Smt. M. Umadtvi 


These are pancacarae ef VIrasaiva faith. They include- 
lingacare. sivacara, sadacara, ganacara, and bhrtyacara, 
which have t>een dealt with, in detail In the chapter on 


li the essence of this religlcus philosophy. 


means uplift or revive or to requote. 

So the adjective means that this woric Is an essence of 
all the acaraa and this Bhasya is meant for reviving the 
essence of acara or principles of Virasalvism concerned with 
VIra er a Sadhaica and Maheswara or Lord Siva. It does 
not mean that Palkuriici refrains from touching other 
aspects but that he shows less preference lor them. 
In the iater chapters he refutes other siddhantas and establi- 
shes his own faith and siddhanta. But throughout the woric 
he takes all the principles of rituals and describes them one 
after another and to prove his statements he quotes from 
authentic werks which Include vedas, upanishads, puranas, 
sastras, agamss. sritis, smrtis, and so on. Thus this work 
Is mo e an authentic commentary on the rituals of VIrasaiv- 
lsm meant for the upliftment of that particular faith. It 
here he differs with the other Bhasyakaras like Sankara, 
Ramanuja Madhva, or Nilakanta who mainly deal with the 
cosmology and not the rituals. Somanatha probably felt 
that stress should be laid on the fundamentals than the hig- 
her knowledge and so wrote this work stressing on rituals 
as they form the basis of any faith and cosmology, leads to 
an understanding of higher knowledge. 
Chapter 1 

In the first chapter of Somanetha Bhashya the author 
gives a general Introduction pf the work, the greatness of 

Pafkurfk/ Somanatha %1' 

Mshatmya of Lord Siva who appears in a diversified form Irs 
the universe. 

After paying respects to the Lords Isa, the author says, 
he is one among the few devotees who declare the Bha^^tl 
Mahatmya of Lord Siva. This bhasya Is "Basavarajlya" In 
Andhra region. 

The author first pays sa'utatlon to Vlr-5bh9dra who Is 
equal to crores of Suns, the killer of Rakshasas. After this 
he pays salutation to Vrsadhisa. Then he explains the 
meaning of the term Basava and says that Vrlsabha has come 
to this world only to establish BhiilctL Then he gives the 
explanation how tachnlcally "Vrsabha" has changed to 
"Basava" according to different grammatical sutras. 

The author feels that Oharma is the base of Lord Siva 
in the form of Astamurti and Is the cause ef happiness In 
the universe. A person who touches Nandi and has the 
darsana of the Lord will be free from all sins. He escapes 
hunger, untimely death, sin, poverty etc., due to the 
pramanas of sruti« smrti, puranas and so on. 

At the same time the darsana ef Harl is avoided In the 
evening as It takes away all the merits ene has earned in 
thia and previous births also. 

The author feels that Nandi is the second Siva' The 
other avatara of Siva Is Vrsabha. According to Vlrasalva- 
cara, to establish "Siva Bhakti," Vrsabha has {come to this 
world. This Is the one who has taken the "Visa" from 
Lord Siva for the welfare of the world. Than the author 
pays salutation to Lord Virabhadra who is the cause of des- 
toreylnd the dakshayagna, whose greatness has been descri- 
bed In Yajurveda, Lord Siva has a name as "ghoratanu" ae 

gg Smt, M. Uma0»vl 

ha l« having • ferodoua term. Hence that title "Vlrebha- 

After payina salvtatlona to other "Pramatha ganas" 
like Benuka, Ghantakarna and other ganas, the author desc- 
ribaa the Bhaktl Mahafmya ol Lord Siva and how he gave 
the desired things to his devotees. 

For the saivaltea who wear llnga, who takes padodaka 
of the Unga. the darsana of others Is prohibited. Tha 
darsana and sparse of these non.SaivaSte devotees are stri- 
ctly prohibited for Saiva devotees according to srutis, smrtia 
and puranas. The author after following their predecessors' 
foot-sfeps in observing the marge divides the whole work 
Into twenty five chapters, In which he gives Importance to 
the mahatmya of vibhuti, rudraksha, sivallnga d^a ana, 
padodaka, praaada, virasaivacara, biscardence of other 
devatas. discardence of Narayanopasana, discardence of 
Ekatma vadana, discardence of AstamurtI and the explanati- 
on of Bhagavacchabda, etc. Thus this chapter includes 
the general Introduction which explains the greatness of 
diiferent pramathas, indicating the greatness of Basav8| 

Second chapter 

The second chapter deals with the greatness of Vibhuti. 
Vibhuti ia of five varieties. They are Vibhuti, Bhasitam, 
Kshara Bhasma and Raksha. According to Indrastutl and 
Jabalopanlsad, Prthvl has emerged from the "Sadyojata" 
face of Lord Siva. Nivrtti has emerged from prthvi. The 
black cow gapila. nanda from the Nivrtti. The dung of 
Nanda used for making vibhuti, vahni is produced from the 
Aghora face of Lord Siva Vidya comes out of Vahni and 
red coloured cow surabhi from vidya. Ita dung is used to 
make "bhasma." Vayu cornea from the "Tatpurusa" face of 
L«rd SIvt. Santi comes out of Vayu and the white coloured 

Ptikutlkl Somanaths 99 

cow Susila comes out of it whoso dung H used for makirg 
Kshara Akaea comes out of the "Isana" face of Lord Siva. 
Santyatita comes out from Akesa and the cow Sumana from 
it whose dung In used for making Raksha. Bscacse it gives 
Aiswarya It Is known as Vibhuti, fcs it glorifiat; it is known 
as Bhasita a-s it destroys all evila It is known as Bhasma, 
and as It protects it is known as Raksha. 

For the higher three cartes, bha^ma produced from 
Agni should be used. For grhastas, th'a bhasma produced 
virajanalagni or in the Agni of vivaha or upanayana. Brah- 
macaris should use the bh ssma produced rrom Tapasagni. 
Sudras can use the bhasma produced frcm the pacanagni. 
Yatis can use the bhasma produced in any Agni. But all 
can use the bhaama of temples. The author now describes 
how to get the vibhuti from virajanala. One muit pay to 
Lord Rudra for obtaining the vibhuti from Rud'sgnl. One 
must evoid a cow which docs not have proper organs, or is 
mad, or one that over eats or lasy. one that is barren, one 
which is tired and cne that doec not have milk. A cow 
which is good in all aspects should be chosen and should 
be used for her dung. Its dung should foe used for making 
vibhuti by chanting the prsnava mantra, it should ba kept 
in a vessel made of mango, bilva, or ascka wood and preset 

One must take this vibhuti produced in the Agni and, 
while chanting mantras "Triyayusam jamedagneh" and with 
triyambakam mantras, must apply on head, forehead, hands, 
chest in a threefold manner. This Is known Sambhavl vrata. 
This is mentioned in the vedas also. 

The first vibhuti rekha should be drawn from the fo»e- 
head to the eyes. The first rekha symbolises Rigveda, rajas, 
and Amrtattvakriyasaktl, Abaiianlyagnl whose adhidevata is 

^OQ Smt M. Omadtvl 

The second rekha symbhilsds garhapatya. Its form Is 
Tamas and It Is Paramatma's Jnana Saktl, Yajurveda and 
Maheswara is Its Lord. The third rekha Is Dakshinagni Its, 
saktl is Antarikshamamlaratma. Samaveda and Sadasiva is 
its dalty. 

Any scholar, whether a brahmacarl, grhasta, vanaprs- 
stha ar yati, if he applies vibhuti, he is relieved from all 
sins. Not only he but his ancestors become purified and 
ha attains Slvasayujya, free from rebirth. 

In Atharva siras, it Is described as equal to Agnl, Vayu, 
Jaiam, Prithvl and Akasa (Agniriti Bhasma, Jalamiti bhasma, 
sthalaroiti bhasma, vyomsti bhasma sarvada sarvam va idam 

Jabalopanlshed describes this bhasma jyoti-"sa esa" 
bhasma jyotlssaesa bhasma jyotissaesa bhasma jyotih" 
The urdhva pundra symboilsas samaveda, the madhya pun- 
dra symbolises yajurveda and the lowest symboiisea Rigve- 

This vibhuti removes all the sins or "patakas." One 
wha d'inks, steals gold, murders a brahmin, escapes tlia 
ains if he wears the bhasma on his body. 

Bhimagama describes, the punya which one geta havi- 
ng a bath In all the tirthas and performing all yajnas, he can 
get the same punya by applying bhasma. There Is no dik- 
eha which refutes the g-eatness of bhasma. There Is no 
tapas, no mantra and no yajna which discards bkasma. 
Such Is the gteatness of bhasma. 

Brahmanda purana describes that vedic brahmin schal- 
ars shauld use the white bhasma. Siva dharma explains 
that "bhasma snana" la batter than "jalaanana" bhuti givei 

Patkarlkl Soman atha 101 

wealth raksha gives protection and bhaslia gforlfles tne. 
As it removea Impurities it is Icnowh as bhasma. 

Kurma Purana describei a brahmin scholar must not 
discard tripundra even mentally. 

This vibhuti is as pure as the Siva mantras, the orna> 
ment of Lord Siva and the de<4troY6r of Kama. By wearing 
such vibhuti on the forehead one Is able to demolish tha 
unfortunate writings of fate said to be written on the fore- 
head. No one Is eligible fordoing "Sivarcana" without 
wearing bhasma. 

One who wears the tripundra across the forehead and 
wears the rudralcsha around the neck, one who Is purs and 
has sisyas is said to be a muni. 

Thus the greatness of bhasma Is described In various 
srutis, smrtis, puranas and agaroas. One who does not 
wear the white bhasma, even his appearance is prohibited 
for a true salvalte. 

. Thus the second chapter of Viramaheswara Saroddhara 
describes the greatness of bhasma. 

Third chapter 
Rudrsksha IVIahatmya 

In the chapter with the above title, the writer deals 
with the greatness of Budral(sha« 

When Lord Rudra opened his eyes for killing the trlpu* 
rasurae, drops of water fell on the earth from his eyes. 
These drops were transformed into "Rudraksha" for the 
welfare of the world. 

Then the author discusses about Jape mantra dharana. 
On« should have a bath and then be by epplying bhasmt 

^(j2 ^'"^- ^^- t^wai/ev/ 

and then should chant ths pfamiva mantra. Then he should 
perform pranayama end then should pface s RLd.a^^sha with 
one face on the head by chanting the mantra-"Sri sada 
sivaya namah." One mjst p!ac3 thiriJy ;wo rudrakshas, with 
two, three or tvv&lva faces on tha iv.ehszC by chanting tho 
mantra, "Parama Sivcya «a rjah " One must place thirty 
two rudrakshas with facss five, stven or vcn around the 
nee* by chanting "srl kanthsj-a nsmfeh ' and on the left 
arm by chanting "sri sorranathaya namah " Around the 
wrist must ba wcrn tiivelve rjidrakshas with .line faces by 
saying "Sri Mahadevaya Njmi;h," a.ia iiiauld 108 rudrako- 
shas with fourteen facs as* yajnopav'ta by cnanting "Sri 
Visveswaraya namah," One who wears these in this man- 
ner will be absolved of the sins committed in perhaps crotes 
of life>times. 

If any brahmin does not wear the Rudrakshas in snana, 
dana, jepa, homa, devarcana. prayascitta, sraddha, during 
the time of dlksha he will not get the actual phala of that 
task. Tahs it is compulsory for a brahm?icarl, grhasta, 
vanaprastha or yati to wear the rudraksha. Then he gets 
the pha'e of performing "Sataswamedha." 

One who drinks, eats meat and behaves in a sinful 
manner, also becomes purified it he wears the rudraksha. 
in Manava Purana Jsbala aruti says that one who commits 
sins also will be purified if he wecirs rudraksha. Wearing 
rudraksha on the hands, head and chest is a sign for saivai' 
tes likewise wearing bhasma on the forehead, hands and 
other parts of tha body. Even a dog will be absolved of 
sins and attain? rudratva If it wears the rudrak&hs at th» 
time of death. 

Thus this Is the essence of the third chapter of Viram* 
|fi9swafa Saroddhara or Stl Somanatha Bhashya. 

Falkuriki Somanatha ^q3 

Fourth chapter 
Lingadharana Mahatmya 

in the fourth chapter Somanatha describes the import«- 
nce of waaring the Itnga. 

in Satarudrlya of Yajurveda the statement "ya te rudra 
Siva tanuraghora papa katlnl" means Oh Rudra I your body 
which is ferocious and auspicious Is the one glorifies itself 
In those who are free from sin. Even the mahastotas indl- 
Gate that your form Is present in those who are free from 
«ins." oh God: these people are famous as the sinless 
ones. So on© can assume that your devotees are the pura 
ones. The following statement also justifies this, those 
who are near the ilnga (or wear the linga) are known as 
the sinless ones Othere are the "arlstas" or the sinful 

In Rigveda "ayam me hasto bhagavanayamme bhagav- 
attarah ayam mala ayam pita ayam jivatu ragamat Idem tava 
prasarpanam subandha vehl nirlni-Thls means the Lord it 
this hand of mine. The whole sum of wealth, vidya, fame, 
sri, knowledge, valragya ail these, six are known as Bhaga. 
So Bhagawan is so called as he possess all these six. So 
this hand is bhagavattara or one who It better than the bha- 
gawan. The "tara" sabda indicates superiority. 

This hand is a "vaidya" to all diseasesa of the Maya 
visva Abhitah paritah sprlsatityabhimarsanah-means It la 
abhimarsanah as one who touches the linga with the finge- 
rs from all sides, "ayam mata"-this hand is the mother. 
Ayam pita-thia hand is the father. Ayam jivatah-thls hand 
is the jivanousadha. 

In Yajvrveda it Is 8tated-j>h Rvdra that which la youra 
Is vary baautiful and vaiieBated, That whifeh ia ysura a 

104 i'n". M. Umadtvi 

iinga which deserves worship. SubaVidhu means auspicious, 
"ch subandhu; this Iinga is your present: Come here and 
sfay her<i ar«d do not mov« fram this hand-Thls is according 
to the Vatuia tantra which means one who we^re Lord Siva 
In the form of Linga, his hand is the base for all Icinds of 

A scholar must wear the iinga in the necic, head er on 
the chest. One must not remove this while eating or deing 
any worlt. He must wear it while sleeping, eating, standi- 
ng, walking whether in a purified state or in an Impure sta- 
te. One who wears the Iinga under the naval is a sinner. 
One who wears it above the naval gets the knowledge and 
maternal comforts. One who observes moksha should wear 
the Iinga areund the neck. One who deserves a continuoui 
rapport with the Lord should wear the Iinga always on the 
head. One who desires the eternal eamyoga with Isana 
must wear the Iinga on the face. Those who wear the Iinga 
constantly are In the company of mean men, sinners yet 
they will not go to the yamaloka. A aiva bhakta must wear 
the Iinga till the end of his life. If he eats dog's meat, it 
becomes as harmless as rice for him. But a person whe 
discards the Iinga even the ordinary food becomea dog's 
meat and blood. With the nearness of lord they will be 
absolved of all sins and sufferings. So this Is the reason 
why Brahma, Vishun, Mahendra, and others wear the Iinga 
all times on their heads. All the akshapadas and sakteyas 
wear the Iinga en their heads. Rakshasas tear their throats 
and keep the iinga inside and worship. Siva munla and 
nanus wear the Iinga around the neck always. 

The worship of Lord Siva with Uma in the murty form, 
Aflnl. Jala, Vayu, Prthvl, hasta guru in the form of llngaro- 
int Is of eight types. 

PalkwIkI Somanatha >jiQf5 

In Mahabharatha Siva puja is of three types. SiTddha, 
MIsra and Sanldrna. Suddha is Llnga [tanmatra, Misra ia 
Sadaslvam and Pratimakara is Sankima. Tiie punya one 
gets by worsiiipping pratima will get the same punya by 
worshipping iinga for five minutes. 

So in Sivadharma Sastra it is stated that Lord Vlsnu 
always worships Linga made of indraniiamani. That is why 
he got the Visnutva. Brahma got Brahmatva by worshippi- 
ng the Lord in lemon daily. Lord Surya always worships 
tsmra linga and got Suryatvs. indra the lord of Devas got 
indratva by worshipping the Llnga made of diamond. As 
the whole universe manifests itself in Llnga, so one who 
desires atmasiddhi should worship the Linga. This linga is 
worshipped by devatas. if it is not worshipped by man, 
he should be treated as an outcasts. Thus the lingaradhana 
mahatmya is declared in the fsurtn chapter of Somanatha 

Fifth chapter 
Lingarcana Vidhi 

In the fifth chapter Ssmanatha discusses about the 
greatness of Lingarcana and also its system of worshipping 

Mahadeva Is established in the centre of Llnga. So 
the linga should always be worshipped as includes the 
whole universe. This arcana is considered as the bsst "sld- 
dhl" by devatas, asuras, pisacas, human beings. Swarga, 
martya and Patala lokas are considered the trilokas. In alt 
these lokas neo ther god is greater than the "Sthavarajanga- 
ma" in the form ef Llnga. The yajnopavlta la described in 
many sastras along with the Lingadharana. 

This lingarcana which is famous In puranas is of tw« 
types according to Bodhayana Sakha. One for tho Kamita- 

108 ^'"^- ^'- fJfiMDVt 

rtha end the other for Pspakshaya. In ths first way it Is 
done for the relief of one's own sin, disease, peace, health, 
desires ai^d happiness. The davatas worthipped it for get- 
ting "Alswarya." in Linga Parana there is a sentence 
which m9«n? that one should worship "triyambaica" for 
health arid death wilJ not approach people. Even Lord 
Visnu ar>d Brahma worshipped Lord Siva in the form of !n xta same way ais the Prannath^ganas and Rudra 
ganas worshipped tiiair Lord. External worship is possible 
when there is internal svorship cniy. In Siva dharnr.a, one 
who tal^es osth-not to laks tood without worshipping Lord 
Siva even at tha cost of losing his life is supposed to be 
Rudra himself in the human form. 

In Sivadharma sastra it is said that one should worship 
Lorn Siva before one attains death, old age, loses the con- 
trol over the organs. Life passes off quickly and also the 
youth. So one should worship Siva. One who eats with* 
out worshipping Lord Siva, he is scpposed to be eating 
insects, dirt, worms, and r:ot food. A person who leads a 
life without worshipping the Lord is a waste product to 
society. Such people should not be looked at or spoken to. 
Thus the fifth chapter deals with the greetness of Lingarca* 

Sixth chapter 

The sixth chapter deals with the grea'ness of LingaN 
cana. All tha beings of the universe are released from the 
cycle births and deaths if they perform the Siva puja in the 
form of Llngarcana. Those whe do not do th.s arcana, 
their life remains a waste and a burden to this earth. One 
who always perform this arcana, gets the best world after 
death. He gets tha yajna phala. He gets the phala of 
ttkina bath in all the sacred iakas and rivers. Se Lingarc* 

Palkuri'ki Somanatna 107 

ana should be performed. Yajnss, Vedas. Agnihotra are 
ail not equal to a part of Linga'cana. Placing a single flo- 
wer on tne Linga gives the phala of donating gold, fields 
and wsjaltb. One who psrfoims Lingarcara by keeping 
patra, piispa, or even water. God wii! be with him for 
ever. Even small children who make linges whh eand or 
mud while playing, even cut of igrof^ncs, wil3 go to Rud- 
raloka after death, whether in moha, lobhg, sjnana, out 
of fear, or for E:ny other reason if ens worsh'ps tho Lord, 
he attains the higheft pof ition after death.-ThIr h accordi- 
ng to Sivadherma. A person who does no! perform *his 
Llngarcana should not even be iookea at or spoicen to. 

This is the summary of the sixth chapter Somanatha 

Seventh chapter 

The seventh chapter deals with the greatneass of Pado- 

Lord Siva who removes obstacles and gives endless 
wealth and fulfils the desires of the devotees should be 
worshipped with waters while chanting mantra "sarvo vai 
rudrah" and them should take pedodaka with the mantra 
"rtam satyam param brahma." In Jabala sakha-the Lord's 
padodaka should be poured in the sankha, should be wors- 
hipped wita gandha, puspa etc. and then should take 
along with the mantra. "Imam me gange yamune." This 
padodaka not only purifies one but also the ansestors. All 
the sacred parts of Kurukshetra and naimisa and the lakes 
are not equal in purity to 1/16 part of Siva s padodaka. 
This padedaka removes "akala mrtyu" removes ail the sins, 
all diseases and Is very auspicious. 

This padodaka Is more auspicious than all the auspi- 
cious things, mors sacred than ail the sacred effect which 

g Smt. M. Umadavl 

accrue as the result of takir)g a bath In all the sacred wate- 
rs, and should be placed on the head. By keeping thus 
one becsmes purified. 

In Adltya Purana It Is stated -ch Lady Mahadeva's pado- 
daka should be taken with both the hands and Placed an 
the head. In Ramayana-the Siva Padodaka was taken In 
by the pramatha gana srestas, Valmiki and was also placed 
on their heads. In Vaidya sastra it is stated-one who 
takes the nirmaiya water of Sull-Mahadeva he will be reli- 
eved from severe dfsease like ulcers, cancer, leprocy etc. 
It is a divysusadha for all the diseases and fevers. This 
padodaka must be taken from those people with mantra, 
that is those who observr the pasupata vrata. 

It la thus declared by Semanatha, the greatness of 

Eighth chapter 

In this chapter Somanatha discusses about Prasada 
Sthala mahatmya In a detailed manner. This Is one of the 
longest chapters of the work covering about forty pages. 

Praaada sthala occupies an important place among the 
"Sat sthatas." According to the "Salva sampradaya" the 
devetees should take the prasada offered to the Lord with 
body, mind and soul i.e , manasa, vaca and karmana. To 
prove this alddhanta. Palkuriki Somanatha has taken the 
principle quotations from Siva samhita, Vyaaa jalmlni aam- 
vada at authentic sources. 

In Siva Purana and Siva rahasya Khanda it Is stated 
that Siva Nirmaiya should not be kept on the head, should 
not be taken, as Prasada. Aa an answer for this, Somana- 
tha starts his argument in this particular chapter defending 
hia Ideas with the authentic atatementa he has taken from 

Pilkurlk/ SomanatftB 109 

tho sastras, agamas, puranas, upanissda, samhitaa ete.> 
That la, this nisedha of Siva nirmalya Is applicable to non- 
Salvaitei who are prakrtas, but not the saivaite devotees 
for whom everything, even dust pa'ticles concerned with 
tha Lard is very auspicious and who constantly do Lingarc- 
ana. Vaidlka Saivaitea say that the iswara prasada wheihar 
patra. puspa, phala or toya should not be talcen by the 
devotees. But this does not apply to Saivaitea who wear 
linga en their body. Visesa is alwava more powerful than 
samanya. Thus Palkuriici stresses on taking the Siva prasa* 

To prove the above theory, he quotes from apasihamba 
sutra, IManava purana, Aditya purana, sivadharma, skanda 
purana, and othera. 

Naivdya means that which is meant for the gods. So 
the "aivopabhulcta nalvedya" is prohibited for non-Saivalte 
pral(rtas. In Siva Purana "nirmalya" means that which la 
pure and clear. So it Is forbidden for non-Saivaite prakr- 
tas. But this is not applicable for pure salvaites. In sIva 
dharma it is stated that every one should wear Siva's nirma- 
lya's Kamlkya. Kamikagama states that one who takes the 
lord's sffering every day becomes one with the Lord. AH 
these Indicate the greatness and purity of nirmalya of Lord 
Siva. So It can be taken in by the bhakta as it removes all 
the sins, in Yajurveda there Is a statement which means 
that ail tha food forms have come from >he all pervading 
Paramaslva and there is nothing which does not belong to 
Him. Thus the devatas take Siva nirmalya and obtain amar- 
atva. From the Vedas which have come from Siva's faces 
and the "sabda rupas" in the form of agamas, the whole 
world has taken its existence. So in every part of tha wor- 
ld there is the existence of Siva's power. So whether pra- 
nda, nirmalya or dny ether thing offered to Lord Siva shou- 

110 Smt M. Umadavl 

Id be taken by the devotee. Somanatha goes en to explain 
the greatness of S!va prasa:Ja. "jVasistha who has taken 
this nirmalya has become a very great rsi, Panini, Kanada, 
Gautama and others have bocome great darsana kartas after 
taking prasada- This prassda is equa! to hundred "adhvar 
as." In Jabala saltha there is a statement-We eat that 
which is eaten by Rudra drinic that which is tal<en by Rudra 
erne!! that which is smelt by Rudra. 

One who does not offer the food to the Lord and eata 
and drinks is like a person who eats dog's meat. 

Sambhu nirmaiya dharma, padodeka sevena, and taking 
prasada ail these remove a!i the si^^.s. Nirnalya is the best 
and auspicious. Naivedya removes all sins. This prasada 
is of three types. Suddha, Siddha and Prasiddha. That 
which is released from the Linga is "Suddha," released 
from the food rema'ning of guru is prasiddha. Suddha is 
taken by vaidika saivaites daily. Siddha is taken by virasei- 
tes dally. "Guru bhukta" is taken as prasada by both. 
Guru prasada is the highe&t by taking which even pasandas 
win get mukti. 

Siddha Prasada 

Nirmalya is of six types. They are Devasva, Oevata- 
draya. Naivedya, canda and bahlkshlpta. Devasvi includes 
fields villages belonging to the Lord Devatadravya Includes 
davadasls, gold, silver of the Lord. All that is meant for 
offering to the Lord like patra, phala and toya are included 
In naivedya. These three varieties should not be used by 
any one. If any one touches a bit of Lord's property he 
will go to naraka only. The SIvopabhbhukta garland, food 
etc. are known as Nivedita. This is "Sarvapapahara" i.e., 
removes all the sins. 

PttkurikI Somanatha in 

Nivedita prasada is of two varieties, bhojya and dharya. 
Everything wiiethsr fo*?d or anything else sliould be offered 
to Lord Siva and tFien sliould be talcen by tiie bhakta. This 
offering should be done with manasa, vacs, and iiarmana. 
Otherwise It bscomes fruitless. 

A devotee whether wallclng, sitting or standing, should 
offer everything in him and around him to Rudra with the 
mentra "namo rudraya". Thus one who drinks that taken 
by Rudra, eats that eaten by Rudra, smeit by Rudra, he exh- 
austs ail his karma A devotee having Prana lings on him 
sliould never fast. People who do not take this prasada. 
greatness of which is described In smrti, srulis, agamas, 
puranas and vedas should not be looked at or spoken to. 

Thus in this chapter the author evaluates the greatn- 
ess ef prasada. 

Ninth chapter 

In the ninth chapter Somanatha lays stress on the gre- 
atness of Virasaiva mahatmyam. The author feels if a cand- 
ala Is a Siva bhakta then the put«stion of caste does rot 
come in to consideration whereas a brahmin scholar even 
well versed in ail the Vedas if he does not worship Lord 
Siva should be neglected. Thus he places stress on Siva 
bhakti or extreme devotion towards the Lord. 

According to Somanatha, just like the lotus in mud, 
agni In wood, gold in stone, so also devotion will be there 
in a candaia also. Teere is no question of caste, creed or 
sex for devotion towards the Lord. Everbodv is equal in 
the eyes of the Lord Rudra, Just like the waters from mou- 
ntains, cities and different places Join Ganga and become 
purified so also people from different castes becom peurified 
if they have Siva bhakti. Due to his closeness with the 
Lord, the csndaia loaes his candaiatva and becomes purified. 

112 Smt M. Omadwl 

Somanatha arso lays stress on the Important places where 
the Lord should be worshipped. There Is no particular place 
where the Lord be worshipped. Whether It Is temple or 
burial ground, plain or thick forest wherever the lord Rudra 
Is worshipped, it becomes another Kasi~it Is the place wh« 
ere the pure Ganga flows. Which meane wherever the 
Lord is worshipped that ordinary place gets the greatness 
and purity of Kasi and the surrounding waters get the puri- 
ty of Ganga. 

On the contrery even If a brahmin, well versed in all 
eastras and vedas if he is not a Siva bhakta, he Is censlde- 
red as a petite and he should not be touched also. 

Where Sankara Is worshipped that place will net be 
effected with famine or diseeses. Kings will not die unti> 
mely death. Where Siva is not worshipped that place is 
equal to smasana. All the people living there arc equal to 
candaias. So with ail these reasons one should not go te 
that place where Lord Siva is not worshipped. 

This Is the essence of the ninth chapter of Somanatha 

Tenth chapter 

In this chapter Somanatha describes the greatness and 
qualities of Viramaheswara or a SIvabhakta whose vrata Is 
to worship only Lord Siva. They are always happy, well 
balanced to face the paredoxes of life, with good charact- 
er, without any passion or greed, kind end [without any 
passion or greed, kind, and without any shortcomings, . will 
always worship Rudra either mentally or physically. 

In Sivadharma sastra the lings is described ae of two 
typee. Cara llnga and acera llnga. Cara la the one which 
meves fn the form tf bhakta and ncara Is Parthlva linga. 

palkarfkl Somanatha 113 

Maheswara Uvea in cara Unga. dus to the devotion of bha*' 
kta, and In acara linga due to the nitya pujas. This cara 
ringa or Siva bhakta ia greater than a crora of scholars. So 
one who obeys the «rdflrs of Sivabhakta is also liked by 
Siva. He should be given the four danas i.e. nitya, naim!t> 
tika, kamya and nirmala in a proper patra and should not 
be given apatra dana- 

The dena given to Siva bhakta pleases Hara and Is 
"mokshasadhaka." In whosoever house a Sivabhakta ente' 
ra, that house, that family and their ancestors prosper in all 
ways. Siva accepts the offerings of the devotees through 
Siva bhakta only, moves through him, smells through him 
and feels through him. 

Somanatha further explains the danaphala which accru- 
es through giving dana to Sivabhakta. if one donates a 
small bit of land to Siva bhakta he gets the lordship of enor- 
mous land then attains Siva sayujya. If one offers fruits, 
roots ect to Siva bhakta he gsts the best birth next time. 
One who does not have any devotion towards Lord Siva 
even if he donates the whole lot of his property. It remains 
a waste. So anything should be offered with bhakti and 
srsddha. So for anything bhaltti ia the esseKtial essence. 

Among those danas truth is greater than dravya dana, 
fame or kirti is greater trutb, longevity Is greater than fame 
and parapakara is greater than longevity. 

Thus in this chapter Somanatha expblns greatness of 
Siva bhakta, his qualities and he becomes one with the Lord 
with his constant meditation. Also how the Lord accepts 
the offerings of other devotees through Siva bhakta indica- 
ting that there is no absolute ditference between him and 

114 Smt M. Umaiftivf 

bis bhskta. the varieties @f 4&n9, in^ the results of dans 
•re expUined. 
f l9V«nth chapter 

This chaptsr explains the Importance of worshipping 
Lord Siva to the exclusion of other Gods, In the view of 
Somanatha all the other gods are of less or no Importanca. 
The only God who should be worshipped, meditated upon 
Is Rudra. He feels this Is the only way to get moksha and 
gives reasons for refuting the greatness of the other Gods 
According to Atharvana Veda, Isana is the only Lord and 
there is no second. So he Is the proper deity to be wors- 
hipped. Siva Sankaipopanisad says-all the Vedas which 
describe that Rudra who has no birth or death, let my mind 
worship Him. Manavapurana describes that Lord Siva is 
the essence of knowledge of all the upanlsads. In tatparv- 
asangraha this Rudra Is described as one having the bhufa^ 
ngmala indicating He Is omnipresent or Ananta. 

In Jabalasakha It is mentioned that at the end or the 
yuga nothing remains except Rudra. not even Vtsnu, Surya. 
Agni or even the stars and everywhere there will be tamas 
or darkness without day or night. Only Lord Siva prevails 
there. In Sksnda Purana It is written that there are 
a number of VIsnus and brahmas but only one Rudra. • This 
thought is supported by Aditya purana which says that Siva 
is Vlswakarta but no one makes him. He sustains the 
world but no one sustains him. He is the Viswanatha, the 
lord of the world but he has no master. 

Somanatha therefore feels that Lord Siva is definitely 
superior to other gods. Hence He only should be the wor- 
shipped. Other gods are Anitya and only Lord Siva is nitya 
so they are not cepable of giving moksha. 

But Lord Siva who is saccldanandaswaroopa, Sivank- 
ara is the one capable of givlhg Moksha to only one-Thls 
H supported by the statement in Perasara Purana, 

Mkorlkl Somanatha 116 

Somanatha feels that one who leaves the worship of 
Lord Siva and prays !• other gods they will be falling in the 
ghora samsara and will not get moksha. They will be In 
Tamas only. So only Rudra should be worshipped by one 
8nd all and no other God, 

Thus this chapter clearly emphasises the author's great 
and deep faith in only in Lord Siva and his Vlrasaiva faith. 
Twelfth chapter 

In this chapter Somanatha proves the greatness ef Na- 
matkaradhipatitva. In other words he tries to establish the 
supremacy of Lord Siva. He takes the quotations from tatp- 
arya sangraha and others to prove this. Where it is stated 
that the salutations given to ther gods reach only Lord Siva 
as all the rivers flow Into aagara. in Yajurveda it is stated 
that Lord whose head is dharma. whose lips are yajna, 
whose heart is Visnu, whose feet areAgni and thus who 
is a celestial form, should be worshipped with anjall mudra. 
So the «ther gods do not deserve any namaskara except 
Siva because these gods are incapable of giving fruits or 
results. Even if they are saluted, and only Siva Is capable 
of granting any boon. 

Thus this small chapar only gives the reasons for acce- 
pting Lord Siva's supremacy. 

Thirteenth chapter 

After establishing the supremacy of Lord Siva in the 
previous chapter, Somanatha now gives In detail the adve- 
rse effect 0f not paying salutations to Rudra and quotea 
"dakahadhwara nirasana" as an example In this chapter. 
He takes the quotations for this from different works like 
Katyayana sakha, yajna valbhava khandana, Siva rahasya, 
Virgbhadra ciaksha samvada and others. 

116 Smt. M. Omadtvi 

This "Dakshadhwara dhvamsa" is « well Icnown story, 
when Dalcsha does not respect Lord Siva in the yajns, Sat! 
his daughter is angered and says that he would be punished 
for his mlstalce and then burns herself. When Surya conso. 
ies that other gods like himself, Indra Varuna, Agni and 
ethers are present there, he need not be frightened To 
this the great muni Dadhici is very angry and says that Surya 
it malcing a worse mistal(d than Dalcsha by speaking in this 
manner and he will be definitely punished by Virabhadra for 
this and he further curses Dalcsha that for worshipping the 
undeserving ones and not worshipping the deserving Rudra 
his kula will be destroyed. Then he describes the greatne- 
ss of Rudra who Is the Lord of all Gods, whose kinkarss 
are all pisacas and even Brahma, who is the Lord of prekrti 
and is always worshipped by the great sagea, one who is 
without beginning or end, and who creates, maintains ard 
destroys the universe, it is that Rudra, who is the greatest 
Further ha tells Daksha that his yajna is not comoiete with, 
out Siva, so saying he leaves the place. 

Gautama then declares that these Brahmins who did 
not respect Lord Siva will be deprived of Vedas. in yajna- 
valbhava khanda-Thosa who do not respect ly/lahadeva in his 
form, in devotion, in bhakti, in knowledge, in fame. In 
Rudraksha, in temple become Brahmsnadhamas. After this 
Lord Siva creates Virabhadra who enters the yajnavatika and 
tells daksha that Rudra is the greatest of all davataa and as 
he is not given proper respect in the yajna, Virabhadra has 
coma to destroy everything. All the yajna mantras also try 
to convince the Gods ts give yajna havis to Siva but being 
full of tamas they refuse to do so. So tha yajnamantras 
vanish away. Then Virabhadra is wild with anger and behe- 
ads Daksha, kicks Indra, and Surya, and beats Yams, Vahni, 
and others: outs the head of Yajna purusa-Thus is well des- 
cribed in the Llnga purana also. 

Palkurfk! Soman atha \\^ 

Thus Daksha who is a Prajapatl was punfshed with hFa 
head being cut off for not respecting Lord Siva properly and 
safuting oiher gods like Visnu. Thus Somanatha tiiea to 
explain the adverse effect of not worshipping Lord Siva. 

Fourteenth chapter 

In this chapter Somanatha condemns the greatness of 
Narayana and estabii^hes the supremacy of Lord Siva as the 
only God and explains the meaning of Narayanopanlshed in 
theSaiva light. 

Vishnutattva is discussed in Narayanopanisad. He tak- 
es this and gives interpretation that Narayana Is upasaka 
and Siva is upasya. Thus making Vishnu a secondary God. 
To substantiate his arguments he brings all the quotations 
from different authentic works. 

According to Atharvaveda-I^a is Rudra, the God, IVIah- 
eswara and Mahadeva. This idea is also seen in Yajurveda 
and Kaivaiyopanisad. From the qutation-yacca kincit jagat 
sarva-it means the jagadvyapakatva •f Visnu but not patftva 
of jaeat. Jagatpati is only Rudra "sahasra sirsaka-meana 
visnu as upasaka. Narayana is described as furusa ia para- 
meswara or Siva. So from the quotations of Narayanopani- 
sad-Anoraniyan, sahasra eirsam. rtag aatyam-from these 
anuvaka vacana pramanas it Is proved that vlanu is only upa- 
saka and Siva is upesya. in Rigveda-Oh Rudra. all tha 
gods worship your llnga form to get Alawarya. Vishnu 
worships you in that form and attains vishnutva, the highest 
position. In linga purana-Lord Siva gava tha Cakra and 
nayana or eye to Vishnu. 

Thus with all these vacana pramanas Somanatha asta- 
biiahes the supremacy of Lard Siva over Vishnu and daciaraa 
that Vlahnu tha warshippar and Siva as tha wwahlpptd. 

ii8 ^f"f- M. Umadevi 

Fifteanth chapter 

This l« a very small chapter consisting of two or ttiree 
pages. In this chapter the author condemns the wearing 
of sankh9, caicra, urdhva pundras on the body of human 
beings. For this he talces the examples from Bodhayana 
smrli, satspata smrti, Suta samhita, Manava purana. Paras- 
ara purana, yajna vaibhava khandsna, Skanda purana, man- 
usmrti andothers-whereit IS stated thai human beings should 
not tattoo sings like Southern or cakra on their bodies which 
U against the sastras. By doing so one loses the right to 
perform religious srauta cmarta karmas. He becomes 
a patlta. He loses the right to perform yajna. Such a dvlja 
should not be eeen or spoken to by others. If one sees a 
person wearing urdhva pundrs he must perform candrayana 
vrata for purification. 

Thus taking quotations from the above mentioned sast* 
ras, puranas, and aganas, Scmnaiha cordemns these 
vaisnavaite religious signs in his fifteenth cviapter. 

Sixteenth chapter 

In this small chapter the writer tries to establish that 
Lord Siva alone is the father of all Gods and the supreme 
Almighty. For this he takes quotations from Linga purana, 
Mahepanisad, Sivasankaipopanisad, Yajurvsda, Agnl purana 
end Aditya purana and so on. 

In Linga purana it is said that Lord Siva created Caturmukha 
brahma, gave jnana to him. This Siva is the Paratpara, the 
father of Brahma and Vishnu. 

In Mahopanisad It is stated that Lord Siva created water 
and released his Virya in it. That was the golden egg which 
is the heme for all the living beings. 

Ifvt sankelpopanlsad states that with Budra Virya th« 

palkurlkl Somanaiha 119 

golden egg was formed in the middle of the sea and from 
it were born Visnu, Agni, Braiima and other gods. 

Yajurveda says that Soma or Sanltara is the father of 
Akasa, Prthvi, Agni,. Indra and Visnu. 

The sama fact is also found in Agni Furana-Mahadeva 
with Urrta is the cause of Visnu, Akasa, Prthvi, Agni, Surya 
etc. In Aditya Purana it Is stated-Oh Maheswara, Brahma, 
Visnu, Indra, Agni, Water, Yama, Suiya and asuras-are all 
born from you. With all these above mentioned vacana 
pramanas, Somanatha established Siva as the father of all 
gods including Brahma and Visnu. 

Seventeenth chapter 

In this chapter Palkuriki Somanatha tries to prove that 
Lord Siva is the supreme soul and is Pasupati and all the 
others including deities like Brahma and Visnu are hia subO" 
rdinates. They are called Pasus, So Somanatha discards 
the theory of Advaita that is the entire universe is only Atm« 
an and there is none else except that Atman. As per Sakti- 
visistadvaita ths'e are number of souls or jivas. They are 
different. They are bonded by the pass: that is piakrtl. 
So Iswara Is the Lord of Pasus and Pasa, To prove this 
theory, Somanatha takes the quotations from tatparyasang- 
raha, Mahimnastava etc, 

in iVIahopanisad lord Siva is described at the Lord sf 
all beings which asserts his greatness This Lordship is 
sometimes given to indra, and Visnu as Saciswara. Laksh- 
mlswara and others to indicate their greatneiss. Aniswara 
is pasu or atman or jlva and parameswara is pasupati. There 
ia bondage for the atmans or individual jivaa but not for 
Iswara. He is the supreme one] He is independent and t\\ 
th» otners are Hi« subordinates. 

120 Smt M. Omadevi 

Thus with all the vacana p?smanas Somanatha tries to 
establish the supremacy of Isv-rara over the gods. In this 
chapter Samanstha tries .o condemn dvimurtis and trimurti 
vadanas that Is, he tries to establish the superiority of Lord 
Siva and states that Vishnu and Brahma are not equal to him 
and are only his subordinates. 

Acco.ding to some there is no difference between Siva 
and Visnu-"Sivaya vishnurupaya Sivarupaya Visnave." But 
Somanatha condemns this. To support his argumenr he 
talces the statement from Vedas and other sources. In Yaj- 
urveda It is said "viswam narayanam devam" which means 
that visnu Is the universe. So Rudra is Viswedhil<a, The 
statement "avdrajana madhvarasya" indicates that he is the 
king of yajna and "yajnovai visnuh" Indicate that Visnu is 
yajna. So Siva is greater than Visnu. Yajurveda says-one 
who Is praised In Vedas etc, famous in Vedanta. he is {\4a* 
heswara, in Siva Sanlcalpopanlsad it is said that Brahma 
it greater than Parama. Visnu Is greater than Biahma and 
Sambhu is greater than that Hat\ and so every thing is the 
creation of Siva. The various statements from Atharvaveda, 
linga purana, Kaliica khanda, shew how Siva suppressed 
the ego of Visnu and Brahma. 

Thus Somanatha with ail the above vacanapramanas 
tries to establish the superiority of Siva over Visnu and Bra* 

Nineteenth chapter 

In this chapter Somanatha tries to establish that Lord 
Siva Is the cause of other goda. He is Astamurti one who 
has created the eight bodies llice prthvf, vayu, agnl, jalam, 
iurya. candra and yajamana for the sake of the three worlds. 
They are censidered as his other forms. Rfgveda Indicates 
that Rudra is the father of Soma. Budha, Agnl, Surye, indra 
•nd ViiQu. 

hlkurfkl Somanatha 121 

Adityapurana s^ys that parameswara with Uma la the- 
cause of VIsnu and is known as Soma, He Is a'so the cause 
of Akasa, Prthvi, Agnl, Surya, Indrs, and VIsnu. Kalika 
khanda also supports tha same. Satarudriya states that- 
Bhava is the cause of Prthvi, Iswaia is the cause of Apas, 
Rudra is ths cause of Agni, Bh'ma Is the cause of Vayu, 
Mahadeva is the caafe Qt Akasa, Ugra Is tha cause of Surya/ 
Soma is the cause of Candra, and Fasupsti is the cause of 
Afman. MahJmnastotra indicd^es that he is Akasa. Agnl, 
Indra, Apas, Atman, and Prthvi. He is saen in everything. 
This vacanapramana irdicates that these are his various for- 
ms and he is their cause. These do their respective duties 
out of fear of Siva's anger. 

Twentieth chapter 

In this chapter Somanatha condemns Kermavada. He 
denounced the theery of Furva Mimamsa. in Saddarsanas, 
purvamimamsa establishes the theory of Karma. Great philo- 
sophers like Sayanamadhave also give interpretation to Ved- 
as in the light of the Karma theory. 

Through the yajnas, like Jyotistoma, and Aswamedha, 
one can attain swarga. This Is according to the theory of 
karma vada. Some disagree to this. Does Karma follow 
body er bedy follows karma? Or follow the jlva. Soman- 
atha contradicts these theories. According to him Karma 
itself is not supreme because for karms, the lord Kermadhi- 
pati Is Siva. So without worshipping Siva the performance 
of simple sacrifices does not yield any fruit. To prove this 
he takes quotations from vayavlya samhita and Mahimnab 
ststa where it Is described how Daksha could not get phala 
for his yajna. Daksha performed a sacrifice without paying 
hemage to Lord Siva the Karmadhipati, and the result it 
Will knvwn. 

Mi Smt. M. Umaaevi 

In this chapter Soman-cfha exhibits his inteilectual 
calibre In the argument he puts forth showing the relations' 
hip between karma ard jiva. 

Twenty first chapter 

In this chapter Sommatha g'ves the description of Bha- 
gavacchabda. From the s?atem?)r.I„ "namo rudraya bhaga- 
vate," "astu bhagavan visweswa'asya," "nilo lohita nam- 
aste astJ bhagavatah"-iii thcss indicate that v.ord "Bnaga- 
vat" indicates siswarya, and auspicious Samagra aiswarya, 
Virya. yasas, jnana, wealth and vairagya are known as "bh- 
aga." So the bhagavat sabda is applicable only to Lord 
Param3sw3ra, the lord of afawarya. Aiswarya comes from 
iswara, Virya denotes ugra, yasas denotes Siva. As Siva 
possess ail these qualities he Is known as iswara or Siva. 
All the good qualities are Inherent In him as he Is the Fara- 
matatn, the supreme Lord. Atharvaveda declares Siva only 
as the supreme lord. One who has created the whole uni- 
verse, promotes yoga, givea Atmajnana, He is Bhagavan. 
He is Lord Siva. 

Twenty second chapter 

Somanatha expands his theory in these chapters saying 
that Siva or Rudra is the commander of karma. So by per- 
formance of yajnas in accordance with the Vedas, Sastras 
and puranas is useless and the Sankari vidya is the only 
supreme learning. 

The mantra which should be uttered at the beginning 
bf any undertaking Is described in Samaveda. Lord Siva is 
the adhipati of Japa and tapas. In Narayanopanisad and 
Satarudriya, gayatri mantra is daacrlbed. In Vedas and 
others the one god who is described as the upasya is Maha- 
Iwara. The Prakrtl manifests itsalf In the form of nada that 

Palkurlkf Somanatha 123 

Is omkara- In Skandapurana Omka'a is described as "Sarv- 
avyapaka" or all pervading one. This pranava Is Para bra- 
hma and is the Paramapada or the highest biiss. That which 
comee out of it Is viswa and Lord Maheswara is the cause 
this pranava. So orrkara is the highast mantra and so Lord 
Siva who gives out this omkara pranava nado is the one who 
relieves any one from "Samsura ssgara." This mantra is 
practised by great sages like Agastya to reach their goal. 

Twenty third chapter 

In this chapter he interprets the Gayatri mantra. The 
adhidevata of gayatri mantra is Lord Siva, Somanatha pro- 
ves this by taking the Bharga from gayatri mantra and says 
that thejtreal meaning of gayatri explains that the "mantra- 
dhistata" Is Lord Siva. To prove this ha takes statements 
fram srutis, smrtis, Itihasas. and puranas and says Bharga 
who is worshipped by the risis and holy men is lord Siva 
and not Aditya or any other God. So he is the Lord of Ga- 
yatri mantra. 

24th and 25th chapters 

In these two chepters, Somanatha discussed the words . 
Rudra and Fasupati. "Rudro va Esayadagrtib'-This means 
Agni himself Is Rudra according to some scholars. But 
this Interpretation is not correct according to Somanaths, 
To prove his theory he took the vedic mantra "namaste rud- 
ra manya eka eva rudrah" to support his view 'Ru' meana 
Pranava or omkara or omkara nads. "Roraviti" means one 
who speaks loudly. So one who gives out Pranava loudly 
Rudra. Vrlsabha who is bound by Satyam shouts loudly. 
That is "RoRaviti." "Rut" also means "Dukha" or causa of 
Dukha one who dilutes that cause or Dukha is Rudra. In 
the same way all the deitias and devatas ilka Brahma, Vi«nu< 

124 Hmt. M. Umadavl 

are Pa*u$ and Rudra b;ing their Lord is khown as pasupati. 
in the last chap'er o) Somanatha bhashya Somanatha gives 
the meaning of Mahadeva. To prove the superiority of Lord 
Siva over other gods he quotes stories from Puranas like 
Si(anda and Kasilchsnda and others. Ha proves that Lord 
Siva is the su;r3m3 god or Ma ladeva and <5nly he should 
be worshipped excsuding othsrs. 

Thus in the abova twenty five chapters the essence of 
Somanatha Bhasya is explained. 

Chapter V 

Comparison of Somanatha Bhasya 
With Siddhanta Sikhamani 

SIddhanta Sikhamani - An Introduction 

It is always essential for man to have a deep unders- 
tanding of religion aa it is essential for him to have an exact 
knowledge about any matter in this world. That religion 
gives such a Icnowledge is VIrasalvadvaita and the religious 
book which reflects the principles of Virasaivism with relev- 
ant "pramanas" is Siddhanta Sikhamani. This is an exce- 
ptional work where the thought is easily approachable to 
ones undeistanding and Is a means to reach the "vijnanam- 
aya kosa." This is like a mirror which reflects the principl- 
es of Sakti visistadvaita. satsthala siddhanta. Linganga sam- 
arasya, Siva yega and Sarana yoga. It is the work wh'ch 
teaches the qualities of Atma and Paramatma. 

The supreme lord or Brahman is said to possess the "static 
phase" and the "dynamic phase." The lord at the "static 
state" Is said to the Siva from whom sakti or dynamism 
evolves. So, Brahman at "nlskriyavastha" Is Siva and 
becomes sakti at "sakriya vastha," according to Sivadvaita. 
Virasaivism paves the path of perfectian for man and this is 
divided into "sat sthalas" having six different stages of 
perfection. This sat sthala jnana is the base for moksha. 
Renukacarya gives this knowledge of sat athaias to muni 
Agastya and that knowledge is given in the form of "siddh- 
anta sikhamani." 

126 Smt M. Omad^H 

This work is mafniy divided into twenty one chapters 
or parichedas. In this, five chapters 1,2,3.4,21 deal with 
the historical evidences, development and branches of Vira. 
saivism while the remaining sixteen parichedas] mainly 
deal with the "sat sthala siddhanta." In these sixteen cha- 
pters, the detailed description of forty four "anga sthalaa" 
and fifty seven llnga sthaias are given. In VIrasaivism, 
"Parabrahmam" is denoted by the term "Sthala." Even 
the parts of the work are Icnown as Sthala. So In this Sth- 
ala, "Guru IWahatmya," "Unga Dharana," "Bhasmadha- 
rana, "Rudralcsha Oharana," "Panohalcshara Mantra VIcara," 
Jivatma Paramatma Vicara," "Sakti vicara," "Jagat Satya- 
tva Vicara," "Parinama vada," "Linganga Samarasya," are 
discussed and the theories formulated. 

This work can be compared only with the Bhegavadgi- 
la, for, 88 in the gita, here also, the knowledge is imparted 
in the conversation between Renukecarya and Agastya. 
This work is otherwise known as 'Renuke Gita" or Renuka 
G<ta" or Ranuksgastya Samvada." 

This work is one of the ancient virasaiva works. l\Ao8t 
of the books on Virasaivism mention the name of this work. 
Sripati Pandlta of 1061 A D., while writing about the Bra- 
hma sutra vakya-'Athato Brahmi Jijnasa" mentioned the 
name of this work j Even Srikanta Sivacafya who belongs 
to a still earlier period, while commenting on the Brahma 
Sutra Vakya "Avibhagena Drstatvat" mentions a sioka in 
the ninth parlcheda of Siddhanta Sikhamani-'Muktah Siva 
Samo Bhavat." 

Not only these two religious preachers but many othe- 

. Itl Rigveda mantrasya srI siddnanta sikhamanou sri renu- 
kBcaryanapi pindatapinda vijnana mitya ambha etani sive 
bbaktasya kartavyani prayatatah. 

Ptlkurlkl Somanatha W 

rs mention this wofk In their writings lilce "Siddhanfa Kau- 
mudi" "Sarada Tllaka salva Brahmsnotpattl'j etc. 

As Sripati pandita of 1051 AD, and earlier Srikanta 
Sivacarya mention this work. It Is deflnile, must be earlier 
even to "Srikanta Bhasya," 

Tne author of this work is Siva yogi Sivacarya who 
belongs to the family "Mudda deva" which belongt to ICar- 
nataka. So, he must have belonged to (he Karnataka Veer* 
Bsaiva family. 

Siddhanta Sikhamani - A Study 

In the first chapter ths autor pays salutation to Siva and 
Sakti who are the cause for this world. He also gives an 
account of his family. In the second chapter he discus- 
ses about the crestion of the universe. First he gives the 
meanings of Siva (IVIangIa swaroopa). Rudra (one who re- 
moves Duhkha), l\Aahadeva (Sarvasrssts), Bhavs (omnipre- 
sent) and he postulates the theory that before the creation 
of the only existence was "parambrahme". Then parames- 
wara created "Caturbrahma," for creating this universe. 
Brahma prays to the Lord to teach him the method of crea- 
tion. In the third chapter he givss'the description of Kail- 
asa. Lord Siva and Uma and gives an account of the cause 
of Renukacarya's birth. 

In the fourth chapter a detailed account of the birth of 
Renukacarya from the Linga is given. He describes Renu- 
kacarya going to "IWalaya Parvata" to meet Agastya, Aga- 
styasfam&varnana and >»gastya requesting the former to Ins- 
stuct him in the "Sivadvlta Sastra " In the fifth chepter 
Renuka explains the Siddhanta to Agastya. in th's work 
the author gives a detailed account of the different brenches 
of Darsanas like Sankhya yoga, Pasupata, Pancaratram, Pur- 
vamimamsa etc. Safv- tanfra is an essence of ell the V^das 

!28 Smt. M. Omad§9l 

unllkd other Sastras and Is a Pramana by itself.. Then ha 
gives the division of Saivism. 

The Agamas are divided by Lord Siva Into Salva, Pasu- 
pata, Varna, Dakshina, Misrama and Siddhanta by "Tantri« 
inas." Among thes9 Siddhantas, 'Sakti Visistadvaita" acc- 
epted the Vedas. 

Then the description of Virasaivaites is given and diffe- 
rence between the Virasaivaites and Maheswaras is discus- 
sed. The author then gives an account of "sat sthalas" 
which pave the path for "Siva jivaikya," These "sat slha- 
las" are further divided into forty four "Anga sthalas" and 
fifty seven "Linga sthalas" which are discussed In detail in 
this work. 

In the sixth chapter the grace of the guru is explained. 
How the guru imparts the knowledge with "Hasta IVIastaka 
Samyoga," the description of "Llngadharana," "Place of 
Lingadharana," the Importarice of Lingadharana the descrip- 
tion of "Antarllnga" and bahya lings " the varieties of Lin- 
ga i.e. ,3 "Sthula." "Sukshma," and "Paratpara," are exp- 
lained. Among these, Istalinga is sthuia. That Linga wor- 
shipped at heart is "Prana linga" and beyond thenght is 
"Bhava linga" or "Paratpara linga."^ 

2. Saiva tantramini proktam siddhantakhyam sivoditam Sarva 
Vedartha rupatva pramanam vedavat eada. 

— S. Sikhamani 5 paricheda, 8 sloka. 

3. LIngamtu trividham proktam sthulam, sukshmam, parat- 
param Istalinga mldam sthulam yad bahye dharyate tanou 

— S SikhamanI, 6 paricheda, sioka 48. 

4. S SIkhamani 6 paricheda, 49 sioka, 

Palkurlki Somanatha ^29 

"Prana llnga midam sukshmam yadantarbhavanmsyam 
paratparm tu yat proktam triptfrlinga yaducyata 
bhavanatita mavyaktam parambrahma slvadhidam" 

The sub- divisions of tliesa are aga'n given Ha further dis- 
cusaes the greatness of Bhasmsdharana in this chapter. An 
account about the varieties of Bhasma,, like Bhasita, Vibhuti 
Kshara, Raksha are given. From the five faces of Lord Siva, 
evolve th: five celestial cows, Nanda, Bhadra. Surabhi, 
Suaila, and Sumana. With their dungs are made the five 
varieties of Bhasma. This mathod of making Bhasma, its 
greatness, its p<acas of application are discussed. Next 
the greatness of Rudraksha varieties of Rudraksha are expU 

In the eighth chapter the greatness of "Fancakshara 
japa" Is discussed. The greatest mantra among all th^ 
mantras is -- "saptakotisu mantresu mantrah pancaksharo 
mantram Brahma Visnvadi devesu yatha sambhur mahattara/'i 
Lord Siva is tynonymous with this mantra Siva Is vieya 
ind mantra la vaeaka. So, His "tattwi" li known through 
thia mantra. Taayabhidhana mantro yam mabhl dhayasea la 
amrtah Abh'dhanabhi dhayatvanmantrat siddhah parah aivah. 
Thia mantra ia famous as IMula, Vidya Siva. Saiva sutra and 

"Mula vidya aivah saiva sutram pancakaharam sthadha 
etani namadheyani kirtitani maha msnch" 

5. Vibhutirbhasitha bhasma sharam rasheti bhasmanah etani 
panca namani hetubhih pancabhirdhcvam. 

6. S. SIkhamani, page 128, sloka 4, 8 paricheda. 

7. S. Sikhamani, page 1 28, sloka 6, 8 paricheda. 

8. S. SIkhamani, page 128. sloka 23, 8 paricheda. 


130 Smt M. Om»d»7l 

A Virasaivjite should always utter this Mahamantra. 

This japa Is of three varieties They are vacika, upamsu 

•nd Manssika.g 

Japastu trividham prokto vscikopamsu manasah 
eruyate yastu parsvasthairyatha varna samanvayah 

Among these, the "Manasika japa" is of the highest cadre 
which relieves one from the bondages of "samsara " 

In the ninth chapter Bhakta, IVIarga. and Kriya sihalas 
are explained and the qualities of a Sivabhakta are discus- 
sed. One who always wears vibhuti, rudraksha and linga 
and always utters "Sivapancekshari mantra" is known, as 
"Sfva &h8kta.",o 

"Bhyti rudraksha samyukto lingadhari sada sucih 
pancakghara japodyogu siva bhakta iti smrtah" 

Siva bhaktl is of two kinds. "Bahya" and "Antarva" 
Sshyi is otherwise sthuia and Antarya is "sukshma" bhaitti ^ 

"sa bhshtirdwldha jneva bahyabhyantara bhedatah." 
bahya sthulantara sukshme vira maheswara druta." 

Among which the "Antarya bhakti" Is of higher cadre. 
Siva seva Is of two types. "Puma bhaktl" and "Alpa bha- 
ktl" and it la again of five kinds They are 'Tapas/ 'Karma/ 
'Japa/ 'Dhyana/ and 'Jnana'.,, 

"pancadha kathyate sadbhirstadva bhajanam punah 
tapah Karma japo dhyana jnana ca syanu purvakam" 


10. S. Sikhamani, p. 128, sloka 1, 9 paricheds. 

11. S. Sikhamani, p. 128, sloka 6, 9 paricheda. 

12. S. Sikhamani, sloka 21, 3 parlchede. 

Pt/kurfkl Somanathi .t.3i 

One who worships the Lord with all th$se five verieties of 
"yajna" is called as bhakto.jj 

"Anena panca yajnena yah pujayati sankaram 
bhaktya paramayayuktah sa vai bhakta 111 smrtah 

VIrasaivaites further should show devotion to Jangama 
as Lerd Is identified with the Guru, Liriga, and Jangama to 
bless the devotees,,4 

"eka eva sivah sakshat sarvanugraha karakah 
guru jangama llngatma vartate bhukti muktidah 

Further, the different forms of the LInga are discussed. 
The Unga is of two types, j^ 

Lingam ca dwividham proktam jangamajsngamatmans 
ajangame yatha bhaktirjangame ca tstha smttah 

After giving the details atjout ynga, th@ gresthesf'gf 
"Sivaprasada" ii digcusserf. . ... i 

Then, th9 author g!v«a en aooaunt of Dana wareli'lii 
again of thre^ types. Thay are sopadhika, nlrupsfUntks and 
sahaja In which sahaja Is the best ,g 

danamtu trivldhem proktam sopadhi' nlrupadhikarn 
sahajam ceti tantresu sarva tantra visaradaih 

In the tenth chapter the author discusses about the 
greatness of "IWaheswara Sthala " One who does "sahala 
dana" always worships Lord Siva wae has vairagya and 
"nitya-nitya vastu parijnana" is said to be "Maheswara.",, 

13. S. SikhamanI, 9 parlcheda, sloka 25. 

14. S SIkhamani, 9 parlcheda, sloka 59. 

15. S. Sikhamani 9 parlcheda, sloka 60. 
ie. §. §ikhamanl, 9 parlcheda. sloka 8(? 

S32 Smt M. Umadtvl 

"kevalam sahaje dane nishnatah siva tatparah 
ttrahmadi sthana vimukho bhato maheswarah smrlah 
baaktiryada samutkareo bhava vairagya geuravat 
tada maheswarah prokto bhaktah sthira vivekavan 

One who has firm belief in the supremacy and great* 
n9S$ of Lord Siva is "IVIsheswara." 

"Viswaswadhiko rudro viswanugraha karakah 
Itl yaaya sthira buddlh sa y^i maheswarah smrtah 

One who is not attracted by the worldly things and is happy 
only In the thought of Siva is "Viramaheswara." 

"sabda sparsadi sampanne sukha lesetu nispruhah 
fivanende samutkanto vira maheswsra smrtah 

Further the qualities of Meheswara are given in dstail. 
The author condemns the theory of Sivadhvaita as there is 
Slwqyi a difference between the l^prd who is WQtshipped 
•nd the bhekte who worships.,, 

"pujya pujyakyor linge jivayor bheda varjane 
puja karmadya sampatterlinga vrrodhatah 
Siva Is "preraka" and jiva is "prerya.",5 

"preeakam sankaram buddhva preryamatmanameva ca 
bhcdattam pujayennityam na ca dvaita puro bhavet 
Siva Is "PatJ" and "Jiva" is dependent on 

"patih sakshan mahadevah pasureva tedasrayah 
anaych swami bhrutyatva mabhede kathmisyate" 

So the Pujaka must wership him with that unfailing 

18. S. SikhamanI, 10 paricheda, sloka 37. 
18. S. SikhamanI, tO paricheda, sloka 40. 
20. S. Slkhamenl. 10 paricheda. sipka 4p. 

Calkurlkl Somanatha 133 

Further ihe "Astamurty niragana" Is discussed. As there 
!s no ekatva between Siva and Jiva, so also there is no 
euatva between Siva and his organs tlial is pancabhutas, 
Surya, Candra and Yajamanaa (Atman) jj 

"yathatma s'vayorailcyam na matam Icarma sanginah 
tatha sivat prthyaderadyaitamapi nesyate" 

These eight are said to be the organs or forms of the 
Lord. There cannot be "ekatva" between the "Adhlstata" 
Siva and "Adhisteya" prthvi etc^ 

"prthlvyadyasta murtitva miswarasya praklrtitatn 
tadsdhistatru bhavene na sakshadeka bhavatah" 

The Lord Is the cause (karana) and the AstamurtI 
forms are the effect or karya. Hence they cannot become 
the Lord Hlmself.j, 

"prthivyadya midam sarvam karyam karto maheswarah 
naitatsashanmahesoyam kuialah kalasoyatha" 

Prithvi and the Pancamahabhutas are only the "Sarira" 
while Siva is the one who controls or orders the thirty six 
"Tatvas." This world which is the Sarira of Siva and "Siva 
at the paramapada," there is always "Bheda" or difference. 
At the same time this Sarira which is prithvi and the "Sarira 
Siva," between the Siva and the Sarira there is no difference 
as they cannot be separated. This "Bhedabheda sthithi" it 
the secret of "VIrasaiva Siddhanta."24 

"Sarira Bhutadetasmat prapanacat paramestinah 
a'.ma bhutaaya devasya nabhedo na prithasthitih" 

21. S. Sikhamani, 10 paricheda, 48 sloka. 

22. S. Sikhamani, 10 paricheda, 49 sloka. 
83. S. Sikhamani, 10 paricheda, 50 sloka. 
24. 8. Sikhamani. 10 paricheda. sl,52. 

134 Smt. M. Umadevi 

So, a Maheswara will always worship the Lord who is 
different from these prithvl etc. He is mainly teen in "Ista- 
linga." Though Siva is seen more in Istalinga still Ha is 
"Sarvavyapaka." Like the waves which are born from the 
Samunra are in no way different from the Samudra, In the 
same manner the universe born out of Him Is not a separata 
entity apart from Him. 

In the eleventh chapter the "prasada stha'a" with its 
•ub-discussed. A "prasadi" is the devotee who by odser- 
ving the principle of "Linga nistadi" sthalas is redeemed of 
his sins and becomes mentally purs and is known as a 

'Vlnga nistadi bhavene dvasta papa nibandhanah 
manah prasada prasadi tyesa kathyate" 

Thus the praaadi state is obtained with the arace of 
the Lord. One who Is devoted to the Linga, Guru and 
Jsngama is the prasadi and he will have the jnana about the 
true nature of the Linga with the grace of Guru without 
which it would be Impossible. This Lfnga Is the Lord Him- 
self. Accordlcg to Saivagamas the Lord's "kriya sakti swa- 
rupa" is Sakti and the LInga is "Sakshat sIva swarupa/'^^ 

"pitika patama saktir ilngam sakshat parah sivah 
- Siva sakti samayogam viswa llnga taducyate." 

Next, the greatness of "bhakta mahatmya athala," 
Jangama Mahatmya sthala are discussed. 

. - In the twelfth chapter the greatness of the next athala, 
ehat ts "pranallnga sthala is discussed by siva yogi. This 
sthala Is divided Into five stages. The nsxt sthala is Sarana 

25. S. Sikhamanl, 10 parlchsda, «1.64. " — - 

26. 1 1 ptricheda, 32 tloka. S.8. 

Patkur/kl Somanattia 135 

sthala. A Sarana is the one who has the knowledge about 
Linganga Samrasya and thinks that he is the "pati".27 

"anga ling! jnana rupah sati jneyah sfvah patih 
yat soukhyam tat ma vese tadvan sarana namavan" 

This stage is further divided into sarana sthala, tamar- 
asa nirasans sthala, nirdesa sthala, nirdesa sthala, siia sam- 
padana sthala. 

The final stage Is Aikya sthala. One who gets the 
utmost Ananda by constantly worshipping the Lord has 
"Ekatva" wiih Lord mentally and is In the Aikya sthala 2g 

"prana lingadl yogena sukhatisaya meyivan 
saranakhyah sivenaikya bhavanadaikyavan bhavet" 

This stage ia again divided Into four types. SIvacarya 
after discussing the forty four angasthalas further gives a 
complete account of the fifty seven iinga sthalas. 

The sthalas which Include from "Diksha Guru sthala" 
to the "Jnana Sunya Sthala" are known as Lfnga sthalas. 
The qualitiea of "Sisha Guru." Diksha Guru," and "Jnana 
Guru" are explained in this chapter. 

He who gives that "diksha" by which ail the ignwanco 
It removed Is the "Disha Guru."29 

''Oiyate paramam jnanam shiyate pasa bandhanam 
yatha dishatt sa taiyam gururdisha guruh amrtah 

He Is only the siksa guru who removes the deubts of 
the sisya and teaches Vedopanisads and makes him know 

27. S.S. 13 parichsda. 2 sloka. 

28. S.S. 14 paiicheda, 7 iloka. 

29. S S. 16 parichada, 7 sloka. 

^36 ^"'^' **• Omadivi 

"Siva Brahma Jnana " "Jnana Guru" is the one who 
imparts the instruction in the secrets of upanisads, clears 
the doubts of the sisya with hU scholarship and bestows 
the "sivajnana" and explains the "tatva" of the "Parama- 

"upadestopi desyanam samsayacchedah lorakah 
sam/&g jnana p adah sasha desa jnana guruh smrtah" 

He further discussed the Icinds of Lingas- "Kriya" is 
that linga where all the actions are absorbed with the l(now< 
ledge given by the Jnona Guru It is also l<nown as "Ista- 
linga paramjyoti swarupa" and Parambrahma is only seen 
In this "Istalinga" from. This Linga in which all the 
Bhavas are absorbed is the Bhava Linga.31 

"kriya yatha layam prapta tatha bhavopi liyat* 
yatra taddesiica ruktam bhava linga miti sphutam" 

That Linga In which all the knowledge about prana 
Linga culminates Is Jnana Linga. 

In the 16th chapter the qualities of "Siva swarupa" 
are discussed. Sivacarya says that only having the Jnana 
is of no use. but should be followed with "Dhyana" and 

"bhavena kirn phalam pumsa karmana va kimisyate 
bhava karma samayuktam jnana mava vimuktidam 

The Siva yogi bestows his kindness on the people with 
his powers and what even he eats, touches sees, smells, 
he offers to the Lord and this is known as "Karyarpana." 
Then he offers his Indriyas. One who offers his BuddhI, 

30. S S. 15 paricheda, 21 sloka. 

31, S.S. 16 pwichedft, 24 alaka. 

Paikuriki Somanatha 13? 

CIttB Manas to the Lord, he is known as Jnanl. The next 
stage fs the offering of the Bhavas and this Sthala is known 
as "Bhavarpana Sthala." 

As this Bhava is the real cause for binding all the lives, 
one who is pure will not be bound by that Bhava. So one 
wiio offers ail the pleasures of the indriyas and also all the 
difficulties to the Lord, he is said to be "Mul(ta." 

In the eighteenth chapter details about "Prana Linga 
Mbala" are given as one who discards "Jiva bhevam" 
with the teachings of the Guru and experiences the "Siva 
tatva" and Is said to be ' Atma jnanl" when once his 
ignorance Is rennoved then ha will have the feeling of "Ant- 

This Jnanl thus discards the Identity and becomes ono 
with the "Paratpara" like ail the rivers which unite In 
the. "Semudra" and lose their identity. 

/kmong the Atnnan, Antaratma and paramatma is the 
highest stage of the Lord Himself In whom all the beings 
are born and become one. 

In the final chapter the author gives the qualifies of 
Siva Yogi who reaches the "Aikya Sthala," Thia Siva 
Yogi who knows the difference btween Siva and Jiva will 
not have any bondage or band ha na. 

Maya becomes subordinate to that Siva yogi who is 
"akhanda saccidananda parabrahma swarupa" and "Jivan- 

He who crosses the theree stages of "Jagrat," "Swa- 
pna," and "Susupfi" and is In the "furiyavastha," for 
him there is nothing unknown and no method remains unoB- 
mprehended. He who has the "Samarasa Bhavs" with ths 
"Parambrahma" ha will not have ttheda Jnana at any timti 

138 Smt. M. Umadevi 

Like water in water, Agni in Agni this Siva yogi also 
finally culminates In "Parabrahma- and does not retain a 
separa'e Identity apart from Him. This is the secret of 
"Sivadvai'a Linganga Siddhanta " This is in short the 
famous woik of Siddhanta Siichamani. 

Planning of the Work 

Both Siddhanta Sikhannani and Somanatha Bhasya wor- 
ked hjrd to establish Virssaiva religion. Fundamentally 
both the wo'ks are wiitten with the same purpose only. 
But Siddhanta Sikhamaei gave importance to Virasaiva 
Philosophy a'ong with the rituals. II is more a technical 
work on this religion and is approachable more to the lear- 

Though Somanatha Bhasya has taken Siddhamsni as 
Its base, still is more a work on rituals, approachable not 
only to the learned but also to the common man. Because 
it is mesnt more for the common man, there is a definite 
difference between these two works. 

Somanathi followed the simple type of Desi style in 
poetfy for tha religious propagation in his work. He used 
simple techniques in writing about the rituals, Rudraksha 
Dharana, Bhasma dharana Linga dharana and told about 
their greatness, the good results one would get by fellow* 
ing these, the bad results for not following, the greatness 
of Vedas, Upanisads, Agamas etc. Regarding the techni- 
cal handling of the subject or the division of the subject, 
it is evident he followed Siddhanta Sikhamanl. 


Both followed the dame method tn proving that Lord 
6lva' is the Supreme God and other gods are inferior to 
Him. Siddhanta sikhamani while proving the supremacy of 
Urd Siva, did not abuse ethei gods and only mentiQfild 

hikuriki Somanatha 139 

their inferiority. But Som?natiia went in dsfaHed process 
of even explaining the meanings of otiier gods and maint- 
ained Rudra is the Lord of all Ouvatas. While Siddhanta 
Sikhamani made an exhaustive study of Saiva philosophy, 
Its 'origin, development, its branches. Its imponents like 
set sthalas, Pancacaras etc , Somanatha Bhasya mainly 
deals with Bhuthi, Rudraksha, Lingadharana, etc. and 
their ritual importance. If for this reason Siddhanta Sikh- 
amani has dealt with a particular topic in four or five chep- 
ters, Semanatha compressed the metter into one chapter. 
But to those aspects to which he wanted to give importa- 
nce he deva loped them into two or three chapters. This 
Is found in a very small chapter In Siddhanta Sikhamani. 

The only reason for this is, Siddhamani is mainly a 
work on the principles of Virasaivism and Somanatha Bha- 
nly a work on rituals. So wherever rituals are concerned, 
he elaborated and wherever philosophy is found he seems 
to have just touched upon it. 

Detailad Comparison of the two works 

In both the works the first few chapters are similar. 
If S. Sikhamani deals with the birth, the greatness of Ren- 
ukscarya or Revanacarya, Somanacarya, Somanatha Bhasya 
deals witn the greatness and Avatara of Vrsabhendra. Som- 
anatha dwells mainly on the bad results of seeing other 
gods like liari. 

"nahi pradose harfm pasya trayodasyam visesatah 
• yadi pramadat pasyesca sukrtam tasya nasyati"3j 

To support his staiement he hag taken a quotation from 
Brahmanda purana. 

32, S. Bhasys, Ist chap. 

140 Smt. M. Umadevj 

"nahi pradose pasyedvavadi pasyet 
pramadstah catvari tasya nasyanti hyayuh prajq 
yasou Balam." 

S. Siifhamani mentions that for the purpose of propa- 
gating Saivism and establishing it, Renul^acarya is born 
from the Lipga in Kulya Paka 33 

"atha triiinga visaye Itulya pakabhidhe sthala 
someswara mahalingat, pradurasit sa renul<ah" 

Somanatha mentions the birth of Vrisabha being born 
in the name of Basava as Siladb's son. 

idanim vira saivacaranugatam and bhalctim 
vardhanaya parameswarajnaya vrisabha eva 
kallyuge basavabhidhanassama janited basava 
rajasva sarva jana sashika. 

S- Sikhamani is just like one of saddarsanas like Nyaya, 
Sankhya, and yoga. It is s scientific work on Virasaivism 
where as S. Bhasya is mainly for religious propagation. 

In the second chapter Somanatha deals with the great* 
ness of vibhuti, S. Sikhamani deals with this topic In the. 
seventh chapter. Both of them follow the same mode of 
dealing (his particular topic. They used almost the same 
quotations. Both mention divisions of Bhasma, how they 
are produced from dungs of different cteseai cows and the 
mantras to be recited while making these different bhasmas. 
S. Sikhamani 34 

vibhutlrbhasitam bhasma sharam raksheti bhasmanah 
etan! panca namsnl hstubhih pancabhirdhruvam 

33. S. Sikhamani, 1st chap. 

34 8. Sikhamani. 7th parlcheda, 4 sloka. 
S. Sikhamani, 7th paricheda, 6 sloka. 

P%lkurlkl Somanatha 141 

nanda bhadraca surabhih susila sumanasthatha 
pance gavo v>bhorjata sadyo jstadi vaktratah 
$. Bha8y83j 

vibhutirbhasitam bhasma ksharam rakshetl pancadha 
gomaya raksha jata Iswarya karanat bhutih 

Both mention all sin» will be washed away with tbia 
Bhasmadharena. But Somanatha goes one step further and 
explains the symbolic meaning of the Tripundras The first 
line symoblises Bhuloka, Rigveda and its form Rajas It is 
Lord's kriyasakti and Ahavanlyagn! and its adhidevata is 
Rudra. The second line symbolises Garhapatya. its form 
is tamas. It is Paramatma's jnanasakti, Yajurveda and Lord 
Mahetwara is the predominant deity. The third line is 
antarlksha, antaratma, and symbolises Dakshinagni. Sama. 
vada and Sadasiva is its predominant deity.j^ 

akaro rajorbhulokah atmatvs, kriyasakti ... 
yajurvGdo madhyadlnam sevanam mahsswaro davata 
trutlya rakha sa dakshinagnih makarastatvamanta 
rikshamantaratma icchasaktih samavedah... 
aadaslvo devati iti 

This type of symbolic meaning is not g'ven in S Sikh- 
amani. Both use extensive quotations from puranas, upe- 
nisads In support of its dharana but Somanaina gives perh- 
aps In greater detail quotations from many more Agamas. 

Next is rudraksha mahatmya in Somanatha bhssya. 
This topic is included in the seventh paricheda of S Sikha- 
mani. Both give a detailed account of the origin of Rudra- 

35. S. Bhasya, 2nd chep, 2nd and 3fd lines and the next 

10 lines. 
3$. S Bhashya, 2nd chap, page 11, 10 lines. 

142 Smt. M. UmadevI 

ksha. its varieties how the Rudrakshas to be woin with 
different fapes. S. Sikhamani has given this information 
without proceeding further. But Somanatha giving impo- 
rtance to rituals says which particular mantra should be cha« 
nted while wearing the Rudralcsha with one face or with 
two faces and so on Thus he has the mantras for all the 
varieties of Rudralcshas. Again both the scholars mention 
the results of wearing these Rudrakshas is the same manner. 
But Somanatha goes deep into the subject and quotas 
from Bodhayanasakha and save that a person who do not 
wear the Rudrakshas should rot be seen. 


SIddhanta Sikhamani gives a systematic and scientific 
explanation to this aspect but does not deviate from the 
actual subject. Ttte author has given the details about the 
definition of Linga, varieties of Linga and also the philo$« 
ophy and syrrtbelc meanirg of Urge ^^ 

parambrahma mahaltrtga prapancatita mayavam 
te dova sarvabhutenamantastrlsthanQ gocaram 

Linga Is of two forms Cara linga and Sihira linga. 
This is explained in the works of both the authors. S. Sik- 

Lingam ca dwividham proktam jangamajangamatmana 
ejangame yatha bhaktirjaname ca tathe smriti 

Somanatha Bhasya also divides the linga into cara and 
acara forms. 

S. Sikhamani further gives the other varieties of Linga 
as ista linga, Prana iinga, and Bhava linga. He gives the 
37. 8 Sikhaman , 6 pariched.a sl.33. ^ 

39' S Sikhamani, 6th />aricheda, 

Pslkuriki Somanathg t43 

account of oood results of wearing this iinga and by not 
wearing It how ona wou'd be deprived of Mukti. Besides 
he gives greater Innporiance to the philosophicsi thought. 

S. Bhasya gives much Importance to Its ritual aspect 
and elaborates this topic in three full chapters. He divides 
this topic into three parts : (1) Lingadharana Mahatmyam. 
(2) Lingacara vidhl. and (3) Lingacara mahatmyam. 
Thus telling the greatness of Lingadharana, Its riluai prac- 
tics and further tha greatness of this practice. According to 
Somanatha if a person wears a Linga, even if he eats 
dog's meat, he Is stil! considered pure. On the oiher 
hand one who does not wear linga and eats food, then 
that food is equal to that of worms This may be consid- 
ered as giving importance to the propagation of LIngadhar' 
ana. Further, ae mentions the names of great sages like 
Agastya, who were benefited by weartng the Linga. He 
mentions two varieties of Lingacara, one that fulfils the 
desire or kamltarths and the other that removes the sins or 
Papakshaya He infers that LIngacsra It greater than yaj'nas, 
by quoting from different upanishads, puranas and so on. 

If we examine an overall analysis of the rituai In the 
works of these two masters we observe that S. Sikhamanl 
g'vea the technical Information obout the subject while 
S.Bhasya gives the rituai information which is useful for 
religious propagation. 

On the greatness of Sivapadodaka, Somanatha aKots 
one complete chapter that Is seventh chapter. But S. Sikh- 
amanj mentions about this In only two slokas 35 

1 . padodskam yatha bhaktya swikaroti mahesituh 

tatha slvatmanornltyam guru jangama y orapl 

a&. S. Slkhamsni, 9th parlcheda. 67.69 slokas. 

144 Smt M. Omadavl 

2. saivamangala mangalyam sarva pavana pavanam 
eaiva siddhi karam pumsa sambhoh padambudhars- 

Somanstha has further given much importance to Siva 
Nirmetya and suppotts them by giving many quotations from 
different sastras. Thus he makes this paiticular chapter a 
very lengthy one. On the contrary S Sikhamani mentions 
this in only few slokas ^q 

nirmaiyam nirmalam suddham sivena swikrtam yatah 
nirmalistatparairdharyam nanyaih prakrta jantubhih 

Somanatha also discussea the importance of the Siva 
bhakta than the performance of sacrifices, i-le suggests 
that a Sivabhekta is greater than any one end even a cand> 
ala, if he is a devotee of Lord Siva, he is greater than a 
dwija who fails to be a Siva bhakta, and Is considered as 
*'p8tlta/' the defileh. Wherever the Lord is woshipped 
that place be it a burial ground, beeomei another KssI and 
the lurrounding uvatera attain the purity of Ganga. While 
werthlpplrtg Siva, caite system has no place at ail-4i.43 

S. Sikhamani offers a different treatment in dealing 
with tha greatness of Siva bhakt! wherever necessary. 

In both the works the qualities of vrata of Viramahe- 
swara has been discussed. 

According to Somnatha Bhasya, Viramaheswara is one 
whole vrata is to worship Lord Siva alone, who is always 
happy, well balanced, with good charm, without any 

40. S. Sikhamani, 9 paricheda, 75,76 slokas. 

41. Dharmahna jati jati bhedo lingarchai sarva rudra sbitit 
avrtah. (S. Bhasya, Sth chap, pgae 51). 

42. S. Bhasya, Sth chap, peges 54, 6^ 

Pilkarlkl Somanatht 145 

passion or greed, kind, not cruel, ind always worshipping 

Siva bhakta maiiotsaha sivarpana parayanah 
eamyukta dharmasampanna sarva dvandva salia 
dhira paropakara nirata anukufah pMyam vada 
daya dakshinya salinah 

Almost the same thought Is expressed by SIddhanta 
SIkhamani ^^ 

parastri sanga nirmuktam para dravya paranmukhah 
.... sivapakarsa sapraptou yogepya sankltah 
sivaikanistah sarvatma vira mahaswaro bhavet 

Regarding the different varieties of LInga and Dana both 
Ihe works have given the same information. Somfnathg 
divtl the LInga into two forms. Qara and Acara ^, 

, lingam duvsya samakhyata caracara meva cs 
oartm pritltl vikhyeta acersm pfirthlvedikem 

SIkhtmtnl gIvM th« two vsrliliM of LInga at Cira 
ringa and Sthira llnga^, 

ilngam ca dwividham proktam jangamsjangsmatmana 
ajangame yatha bhaktirjangame ca tatha smrta 
acare mantra samskarallinga vasati sankarah 
aadakala vasatyeya cara linga maheswarah 

While Somanatha describes the results of Dana and Its J 
various forms „ 

43. S. Bhaaya, 10th chap, page 56, 2nd para. 

44. S. SIkhamani, 10th paricheds, page 162, slokas 15-80. 

45. S. Bhasya, 10th chap, p.57, lines 2-6. 

46. S. SIkhamani, 9 paricheda, p.152, slokas 60,62. 

47. S. Bhashya, 10th chap, p.58, 2,3 Una*. 

140 §«'■ ^- Omadtvl 

nitya nalmlnl ka, katnyem nirmalanea chaturvidham 

Siddhanta Slkhamani indicates the greatness in giving 
dsna t» a Siva bhakta and than eldborates the varioui 

danam tu trividiiam proktam sop&dtii nirupadhikam 
sahajam ceti tsntresu sarva tantra visaradalh 

In Semanatha Bhasya tlie autiior condemns otiier gods 
by reiterating tlie greatness of Lord Siva compared to the 
inferierlty of other gods by quoting extensively from various 
sastras, puranas and agamas. He has allotted one full cha* 
ptsr for this purpose. Siddhanta SikhamanI does not men- 
tien this. He doesn't even touch on the topic "Oakshsdh^ 
wara nitasana" vuhich Is descfibed in a detailed manner 
in Somanatha Bhasys; Semanatha used the mythologioel 
Igre to prove his theory. 

Certain ether topics are dealt by Somanatha In a detsU 
led manner while SikhamanI deals with them in e tubtle 
manner. For example, S. Bhasya dsala with the meaning 
of "Narayanopanisad" condemning "urdhva, pundra, San* 
kha and Cakra." completely, SikhamanI does not even 
mention about these. 

Both the books deal with "AstamurtI Nirasans." 
Semanatha while discussing about "Ekatmavada" discusses 
about Pasu, Pati and Pasa, Jiva has bondage or Pasa but 
net SiV8,49 

Pasa baddho bhavejjivah pasamuktah 
parassiva iti vedanti 

48. S. Slkhamani, 9 paricheda, p.l56, 80 sioka. 

49. S. Bhasya, ceap.l?, page 93-1-4 llnee^ 

Ptikurlkf Somansths f 47 

He is the supreme one, independent end other gods ste His 
subordinates. This thought is justified by Silchamani too. 

In two complete chapters Somanatha deals with tha 
Justificstlon of the titles of Mahadeva and Rudra. He disc- 
ussas the meanings of Rudra and Pasupati. According ts 
him "Rut" means "Pranava" or "Omicaranada." "Rora- 
vati" means one who utters loudly is Rudra. "Rut" also 
means "Ouhkha" or the cause of "Ouhkha." One who 
decreases that cause is Rudra. In the same manner all the 
devatas are pasus and Siva their Lord is known as "Pasu- 

brahmedya sthavaram tasca pasavflh parlkirtltah 
tesam patltvadwfsvesis bhavah pasupati smrtah 

Siddhanta Sikhamani does not giva much Importance 
(0 this Nirvacana and ir.entiona about the {iliffer^nt ngmsf 
Of Lord Siva In on© ar Jwo slokas only.j, 

>iva rudr« malhadeva bhavadi pads ssinlkaf^i 
edvltlya manlrdetya parambrahma sanafansm 

In the opinion of Somanatha, the "Guru" occupies 
the highest position in the universe, if one is the object of 
anger of Siva, then the Guru is the protector, but against 
the guru's wrath even Siva cannot offer protection. As sins 
are removed with "Agnlsamskara," in the same manner 
with "Guru Samskara" man Is cleared of ail the sins. That 
Guru is "Vedajna" and "Pasamocaka." 

The same thought as above Is expressed by Siddhanta 
SIkhaman! also. The Guru is the one who has a detached 
outlook, can discriminate between "Jivatma" and "Param- 

60. Somanatha Bhasya, chap 24, page MS, last tO llnesr 
pt. S. Sikhamani, 2 parlcheda. 6 sioka 

148 Smt M. Omad»9l 

Itmi," on9 who ean clear all the douI)ts of SIsya, one who 
if a JnanI and well versed In Sastrgs relating to lord 

Osyatrl Mantra 

Somanatha took the Gayatrl Mantra "tat savitur varenya 
bhargo devasya dhimahl dhlyo yonah pracodayat" and gIvU 
ng the grammarlcal analysis of the word Bharga and comp> 
ares It with the "Nighantu" meaning and finally proves 
that Bharga is Siva Himself and the Gayatrl Mantradhldev. 
ata is Lord Siva alone. But he does not give any Import* 
anee to the symbolic meaning of the mantra. SIddhanta 
SIkhamanI fakes pancakshari mantra and gives a detailed 
explanation of the greatness of this mantra. According to 
Sikh«msn] no other mantra Is greater than Pancakshari ^^ 

siva tatvatparam nasti yatha tatvatara mahat 
tatha pancakshari mantrannasti mantrantars mahat 

At Lord Siva !• knawn through this mantra It \% the root at 
III mantrta.u 

A hstuh paramatma maheswara 
tasya vacaka mantra yam sarva mantralka karanam 
tasyabhidhana mabhidheyasca smrtah 
abhidhanabhi dhdyatvanmantrat siddhah parah sivah 

The two letters "Siva" indicate that Lord in "saccida- 
nanda swarupa" and is endowed with endless tejas. Here 
S. SIkhamanI describes the svmbollc meaning of this "Maha- 
mantra." The five letters of this great mantra represent the 
panca mahabhutas, panca jnanendriyas, panca karmendrlyas, 

S2. S. SIkhamanI, 6 parlcheda, t-6 slekas. 

63« S. Sikhamani, 1 parlcheda, sloka 2. 

64. S. Sikhamani, 8 parlchsda, 5 & 6 slokas. 

palkuriki Somanatha 149 

panca brahmas and panca kriyas.j^ 

panca bhutani sarvani panca tanmatra kanl ca 
jnanendriyani pancapl panca karmendrlyani ca 
panca brahman! pancapl krtyspl sahakarenaih 
bodhyani pancabhirvarnaih pancakahara mahamah 
pancadha pancadha yani prasiddhani visisatah 
tani sarvani vastuni pancaksara mayanihi 

This graat mantra which is able to hold all these great aspe> 
cts, relieves one from "Samsara sagara" In which the His- 
kala Siva is known, is the greatest representing Lord Siva 
alone 55 

pranavenaiva mantrena bodhyate niskaiem sivah 
pancaksharena mantrena panca brahma tanustatha 
niskalah samvidakarah sakala viswa murtikah 
ubhayatma sivo mantre sadakshara mayeathltah 

Further a detailed account is given Is Slddhanta Sikh- 
amani regarding the method ol uttering the mentra which 
is not given in Somanatha Bhasya. 

Astamurti vada Nirasana 

Both Slddhanta SikhamanI and S. Bhasya condemned 
Astamurti vada. According ta Somanatha Latd Siva Is the 
Astamurti and who has created the eight badlas Ilka Prthvl, 
Akasa and so on. They are considered as his other farma. 
These forms perform their duties due to his fear .3, 

parameswarah prthviyadyasta tanungm karteil prasldd- 


tasmat parameswarasya sakshan murts yena bhavati 

66. S. SIkhamani, 8 paricheda, 14,15,16 slokat. 
66. S. Sikhamanl. 8 ppriehada. siokaf 21.22. 
57. Somanatha Bhasya, I9ih chap, lit piQt« 

150 Smt M. UmadevI 

in this regard S. Sikhamani c'early mentions that there 
cannot be "ekatva" bstweei "adhislata" Siva and "adhls- 
teya" prthvi etc 5, 

prthviyadyastamurtitva mlswarasya pi'akirtitam 
tadadhistatru bhavenis na sakshadeica bhavatah 

Lord Siva is the "l<arana" and prilhvi etc, are the Icar- 
yas. These constitute the body of and Siva the Atman.^, 

prithivyadyatma pary<inta prapanco hyashtedhasthltah 
tanurisasya catmayam sarva tatva niyatmalcah 

S. Silchamani proves that there is difference between 
the Siva, the Atman and the body prithvi etc. At the same 
time thoie which constitute the body cannot be separated 
from "Ssrira Siva/'^o 

sarira bhutadetasmat ptapancatparamestlnah 
atma bhutasya na bhedo na prithait sthitih 

T41US both accept the theory that Lord Sivais the one who 
created prithvi etc, and is superior to them. 


Somanatha Bhasya condemns Icarmavada. According 
toSomanatha, Karma itself is not supreme, because for 
karma the Lord Karmadhipati i« Siva, so without worshi- 
pping Siva, the performance of sacrifices simply does not 
yield any fruit. S. Sii(hamani goes one step further and 
S9ys that when a Sivayogi offers his body to Lord Siva he 
becomes Sivarupa and gets Sarupya 

68. S. Sllchamani, 10th paricheda, last five lines a 49 siska. 

69. S. Slkhamani. 10th paricheda, 51 sloka. 
60. S Sikhamsni, 10th paricheda, 51 sloka. 
ei. S. Sikhamani, 17 paricheda, 31 sloka. 

Palkurfkl Somanatha 1 5 1 

ysda yogi nijam deham sivaya vlnivedayat 
tada bhavati tadrupam sIva rupam na samsayah 

All the work, enjoyments of the indriyas should be offered 
to the Lord as He is ttte "CaU8e."g2 

indriya priti hetuni visaya sanga janica 
sufchani sukha chidrupe siva yogi nivedayat 

As the mind is the leader of all the indriyas, if that (s 
olfered to Lord there Is no necessity of offering others.^j 

indriyanam samastanam manah prathama mucyate 
vaslkrute sive tasmin kimanyaisyedvasanugaih 

A person who offers ell the work he does to Siva al«ne, 
all the words he speak to Siva alone, will net have bondage 
of k8rma.g4 

sarvakarmarcanam sambhorvarcanam tasya kirtanam 
Iti bhavayato nityam katham syatkarma bandhanam 

Thus If we take these two works, and In an overall 
comparison, we understand that Samanatha has definitely 
made SIddhanta SIkhamanI as the base of his Bhasya and 
presented his siddhanta. That is the reason way, while 
writing the chapters on LIngadharana, LIngarcana, Rudra- 
ksha, IVIahatmyam, Vibhuti mahatmyam, Maheswara sthala 
mahatmyam, he completely depends on S. Sikhamanl. He 
develops his system In the same manner and in the same 
order also. But throughout he places much importance on 
rituals and touches lightly on philosophy and cosmology. 
Whatever arguments he wishes to develop, his main aim 

62. S.Sikhameni, 17 paricheda, 32 sloka. 

63. S. Sikhamanl. 17 parlcheda, 38 sloka. 
©4. S. Sikhamanl, 17 p»rlehedt, 61 "lolci! 

152 Smt M. Omadovi 

waa to prove one fact, that is, to prove the supremacy of 
Lord Siva and to spread SIvabhaktl among common people. 
Far this, the then prevailing social conditions and the Icin. 
gly patronage helped him as the rulers were Virasaivaites 
In the Kaicatlya kingdom. So Siddhanta Sikhamani's theory 
is made ihe base in developing his siddhanta. He includes 
some mythological stories like "Oakshadhwaranasa" In his 
subject and gives further support (o his work as such my. 
thological stories are relished more by the common man. 
This type of stories are not found In Siddhanta Sikhamanl. 
we find only a pure systematic approach and philosophy, of 
the subject in Siddhanta Sikhamani. 

Pure philosophy eppeals to only learned scholars and 
Somanatha's main purpose Is the spread of Virasaiva religion 
among the masses also. The work of this Bhasya Is Justified 
as it has fulfilled his aim. This work deals directly with the 
greatness of the pancacaraa etc. of Virasaiva religion. 
Thus Semanaths is justified In writing this Bhasya with 
this simple treatment. 

chapter Vt 

Somanatha Bhasya : a Critical Study 

Somnatha was a multilingual wriiar who was proficient 
in as many as eight languages in which he wrote his bool(s. 
Basidss he was wellversed in Vedas, upanisads, sastras, 
putanas, itiha«as, smrtis, agamas, etc. This is evident 
from the argument he put up to support his state- 
ment, where he quotes from Vedas, Puranas and ethers. 
To prove his thesry ha quotes from Sanskrit satsthaias and 
takes grammar quotations from panini's sutras and Vararuci's 
sutras. Somanatha Bhasya is an irrefutable proof of his 
extraordinary scholarship. Wa can confidently declare that 
Somanatha was one of the greatest scholar poet or Pandita 
kavi of his times. 

Vrsabhendra IViahatmyam 

In the first chapter Somanatha described greatness of 
Vrsabhendra. How the word Vrsabha ia changed to Basava 
is discussed here. According to him, accarding to the sutra^ 
"aasosa," "sa" becsmes "sa" and according to Vararuchi 
Butra "Vah pavarga," "va" becomes "Ba". In the same 
manner. In the worda Kutala, lamarasa etc. rha first letter 
is replaced by the third letter. According to Vararuci Var« 
tika "Pova" "Pa" Becomes "Ba". Thus Somanatha pro* 
ved grammatically how Vrsabha is changed to basava and 
exhibited his achoiarahip in Vyakaranasastra. Later descri- 
bing the origin of Basava (Janma Viittanta), ha quotes 
from Brahmanda Furana, Yajurveda, Brhadaranya sakha 

1. S.B. let chap, page 2. 


Smt. M. Umadivi 

(Bhadram Karnebhih srunuyama dsvah, bh^dram pasyatna 
shabhiryajatva sthivafrangaistu stuvasapta mabhih), from 
Vatulatanfra from satarudriya ("dvs/adasam Virabhadrakam) 
and from Skanda purana (namo vah kiri kebhyah) and so on. 

Somanalha's scholarship is a t\wo fold one. First he 
quotes the scriptures to provs his argymsnt that is, esta- 
blishment of the supremacy of Lord Siva, The second asp- 
ect is the interprstation, he gWe-i fo? tha ^uisb'ished mant- 
ras to his own conv£ini«nce. 

The second chapter of Somsiiatha Shasya, "pundram 
trayayusam, trayayusam jamadagneh kasyapasya trayayusam 
agastasya trayayusam} is the mantra given. "Trayayusa" 
the Vedic brahmins apply vibhuti on forehead, on the shou- 
lders, head and cheeks. This was explained by Somanatha 
clearly. But in the Vedas the names of persons are not 
indicated. Let us sea thia mantra fro.n samaveda-jatah 
Parana dharmana yat savrudbhih saha bhuvah pita yat kasya 
pasyagnih sraddha mata manuh kavih.,- In this the atman 
and para matma described in slesalamkara :- 

According to JIvatma 

According to Paramatma 

oh egni 

oh Atman 

oh Paramatma 


the best sadacara 

the best dharana 


by the dharma 

by efficiency 


you are known 

you are known 



by which manner 


you are associated 

you are omnipotent and 

with the indriyas 

2, Samavedi purva vacika agne ya kanda 

prathama prapataka, dwitlyartha navama dasati 
im aleka. 

hikurlkl Somanaiha 


to th.9 m'm4 which 

%o tbe Suryaloica who fs 


the cause of life to the 


the Paiaka, fi' 

the ru?er of these 

of that manavas 

Suryaloka etc. 



the creator 


the buddhi which 

the creator who retains 

retains tha tiuth 

the satyam 

or sa'.yam 


the manavs who is 

who U full of jnana and 

ir.aiianasila and 

is a sarvajna 



He ie only kranta 

Iswara, Peradrasta, 


Upadrasta, and Adiguru 

In Satapatha Brahmana^ there is another mantra-"tas- 
mat kasyapaaya Imam prajah" which means that this whole 
world is kasyapa'e creation. But in nirui<ta, kesyspa means 
"kasyapah kasmat pasyako bhavati iti." Here "Pasyaka" 
means one who sees this whole universe in Its true nature.. 
So the creator of the world. Lord Parameswafa Is kasyape. 
According to IVIahabhasya vacana "Adyantavlparyasca" the 
first letter becames last and the last letter becomes first and 
•0 "pasyaka" becomes "kasyapa". Thus according to nlr- 
ukta Kasyapa sabda is the symbolic form of IVlanas "(kasya^ 
pah pasyako bhavati."^ Thus we must understand the mea- 
ning of the Vedic kasyapa as scholar. Here in the second 
chapter of Somanatha Bhasya the author explains the mea- 
ning of this mantra with reference to Siva and Bhasmadha- 

The Vedic words generally have the thrse meanings. 

3. Kasyapah pasyako bhavati— nlrukta, 3-10. 

4. Satapatha Brahmaaa, 75«f-6. 

5. Nlrukta, 3-10. 

e. PasyttitI pmyah, pssya ev« kaiyapakah. 

iB6 Hmt M. Omadtvi 

The adibhoutika, adidaivika, and adhyatmika meanings. If 
wa take the words Aswai Qoh and others, the worldly mea- 
n!ngs are horse, cow etc. But if we take the spiritual mea- 
ning, it Is for the adhyatmika sakti—'Vastram va aswame- 
dhah", and "annam hi gouh/'g 

To the above quotation and "u^gnirva sswah ajyamed* 
hah", the meaning given by Dayananda in his Satyarthapr- 
akssike^o ia thiit the yejna performed formed for the king 
to rule, the country according to dl^arma and yajamana 
who gives oblations in the fire for imparting education and 
the like. Is known as Aswamedha, that which is meant for 
keeping atman, Indriyas. prtovi and kiranas in a pure man- 
ner In Gomedha.„ 

Thid same thought was supported by Auroblndo also. 

So we can come to the conclusion that we should not 
take the yakyartha only, for veda sabdas. But Somanatha 
for the sake of convenience to support his argument has left 
the spiritual meaning of vedic mantras and has only taken 
tha vakyartha in interpreting his theory. This only shows 
Somanatha shrewd insight Ints the aubjact. 

Not only Somanatha but other philosophers like Bama* 
huja also took the werda like Rudra, Rudraksha, Visnu etc 
fr«m the Vedas and gave their own interpretation In their 
own light, that is in Saivate and Valsnavaite light. This 
clearly Indicates their sharpness In their Interpretatltn. 

7. Qustation from Satapatha Brahmana 13-1-6-3. 

8. Satapatha Brahmana, 4-3-1-25. 
8. Satapatha Brahmana. 

10. Satyartha Prakaslka, 11th chap, page ^79. 

11. Satyartha Frakasika-Swami Dayanada Saraawatit 1 1th 

MHurlkl Somanatha 157 

The Baaaveswara whom he mentioned In the first cha- 
pter is not that one who belongs to history. Because in the 
foliowing siolcas Somanatha mentions about nandisvars and 
the good results of having the Darsana end sparsana of 
Nandisvara and aFso the difficulties and sins one would gat 
by not doing so ,j Pradosa kale vrsasya vrsanam sparsana 
matrena sarva papakshayo bhavatl. sarva tirtha snana pha- 
lam bhavati." the very beginning Somanatha made great efforts 
to use this work to propagate the Virasaiva siddhanta and 
to establish the rituals of Salvism. 

There is no continuity of the subject in this chapter. 
Else his idea may have been to introduce the important 
"i'ramatha ganae" like Nandisvara, Virabhadra and others 
to the readers and to establish their origin, end greatness 
6y quoting from Srutis, smrtfs, and puranas and to give 
grammatical importance to their names suggesting hew 
Lord Siva Is only Nandisvara or Vfsebha who came to this 
world for Ihs establishment of Dharma. Further he explains 
the grammatical Importance of Virabhadra, how the word 
has originated and evolved jj To prove this he has tsken 
the quotations from Yajurveda and othere, but instead of 
giving the spiritual or symbolic meanings, he gives the 
grammaticel interpretation to these Rks or siokas. 

So it can be concluded that Somanatha did not touch 
the spiritual meaning of the words and took the only "Vak- 
yartha" and sometimes the "adhibhouttka" and "adhidaivika 
meanings. He did not explain the adhyatmika meaning to 
interpret his philosophy In ths Salva light. 

12. Som. Bhasya, Chap. I, page 2. 

13. Som. Bhasya, Chap. I, page 4. 

jgg Smt, M. Omadavl 

For salvaites Bhasmadharana Is very holy, sacred and 
ImportarJt. All the Saiva works mention the tripundras end 
vibhutl. In the second chapter Somanatha discusses about 
the greatness of this vibhuti. The method of applying 
Bhasma. the benaflfe one would get by applying this bhas- 
ma are already mentioned in different sastras and puranas. 
Somanatha takes those quotations to give authenticity to 
his opinion. Bhasma Is of five types. They are vibhutl, 
bhaslta, bhasma, kshara and raksha. Here Somanatha quo- 
tes rrom Jabalopanisad. Kalagnlrdropanisad, Manava Purana, 
Yajurveda, Bhimagama, Sivadharma, Brahmanda, Garuda 
and Kurma Puranas Vaysviya semhita and others. 

But in describing the greatness of these Somanatha 
again gives importance to Saiva rituals only bui not to the 
symbolic significance. To estdbliish the greatness of Bhas- 
madhsrana he has used quelations not only from purangs 
feelgnging to Saiva faith but also from Valsnave faith. 

In the third chajstef Sesnanaths mainly placea sttm 
on Rudrakftha and Ito gieatnesa. In support of thia ritual 
he takes quotations from Bodhayana «akha, LInga purana, 
manava purana and others. This clearly Indicate his schol- 
arship but does not show his ability to analyse the spiritual 
significance. In his devotion he goes to the extremity of 
saving that even a dog if it wears a rudraksha reaches god 
•r rudratva. This is nothing but his undeniable faith in 
Salviam which is based on a rational approach. 

In the chapters four, five and six, Palkuriki discusses 
abeut the Mahafmya of Linga, and lingadharana, the place 
where the lingedharena should be done and mentioned the 
famous munis who wore the linga on their body. To make 
thia authentic, he has used quotations from Mahabharafa 
and others. At the end of the chapter he eaya little ^bout 

htkarlkl Sdmanatha tS9 

the cosmology of the Itngo. According to Somanatha the • 
whole universe Is manifest In the LInga. So on© who desi- 
res "Atma siddhi" should worship the linga. As Mahadeva 
is established in the Centre of the LInga, It should be wor- 
shipped, as It Includes the whole universe. He further 
gives the details about the two types of llngarcana, kamita- 
Iha for fuff riling the desire and papakshaya for demolishing 
sins. Semanatha's staunch faith In Saivism is indicated by 
ihe fact that he condemns those who do not perform Llnga- 
rcana and pronounces that their life is a waste. He further 
gives the phala ol this arcana. Before examining these cha- 
pters closely, the details about Linga and Lingadharana 
should be understood. 

What is the linga 7 

According to Sivanubhavasutra, that In which the mov- 
ing and the non-moving world la manifest and is finally 
diS99lvfd in, is known as the tinga „ 

iiyate gsmyats yatra yens earvacaracaram 
tadataltinga mftyuktam llngatatvisaradaih 

That which Is the cause of all and represertts Parabrahman 
Is the linga, according to Saiva siddhanta Sikhamanij, 
"bahunatra kimuktena Ifnga mltyucya*e budhaih sivabhidam 
parambrahma eld rupam jagadaspadsm. 

In other words J nana swarupa brahman is Linga ,g 
"LIngam cldatmakam brahma tacchaktih paana rupinl. 

That which is ananta without birth or death consisting . 
of trig Unas, that mule prakrti is the lings according to Can- 

14. Sivanubnava Surra, Chap.HI, si 3 published by Muruga. 

15. Siddhanta Sikhamani. 

16. Siddhanta Sikhamani, 12 Paricheda, 3 slok^. 

]60 Smt 191. Om$6nl 


avyaktam lingamakhyatamanatamajaram dhruvam guni 
trayatam devasssmru jatya vati hantica 

Lord Siva along with this Pralcriti performs the functi- 
ona of creation, execution and destruction. 

In this linga there are four parts. Para bindu. Para 
nada, aparabindu and aparanada. In the Siva linga, prsna- 
va is the pita or the base and the nada is the linga. So 
Lord Siva is always associated with this Nadatmakalinga ,, 

bindu madhyo gato nadah, nada madhyetu ntfurtayah 
murtimadhyagatam tatva madhya gatassivah 

As this linga always increases the prosperity to those 
who worship it. It Is also known as Brahman. 

tasmaliingmiti khyatam satyananda cidatmaksm 
truhatvat brunhanatvaeca brahma sabdabhidheyakam 

This linga Is of twa typds. Antarlinga worshipped by th« 

adhare hrldaya apl vapl bhrumadhye va ntraritaram 

Jyotlrlinganu sadhanamamtaram linga dharanam and 
bahya linga worn on the body. 

nirupadhika makhyatam llngasyantara dharanam 
vlslsta koti gunltam bahya lingasya dharanat 

8e Siva Is present in the linga and he la Farambrahma.ji 

17. Candrejnanotara Sivegaivis. 

18. Vatulagama 

19. Siddhanta Sikharosnl, 6 Parlched, 37 slcka. 

20. Siddhanta Sikhamapi, 6 parlcheda, 38 sloka. 

21. Sankara Samhita vacana, 

Ptlkwlkl Som$natfta t@l 

para sfve linga swsrupe llnga rupatika pati 

At Kalpanta the whole universe including the gods and 
creator dissolve in this linca. Again at the beginning of 
the creation all these emerge out of linga. Thus the Siva 
llnga is the cause of everyihing Everything lie; In this 
llnga and beyond it there It nething jj 

Hnga madhye jagat sarvam trilokyasacaracaram 
linga behyatparam nasti tasmil linga prapujayet 
This llnga Is of three types agaln.jj 
lingantu trivldham proktam sthula stkshma para'parpm 

The sthula llnga is otherwise known as Istalinga. The 
sukshma llnga is Pranailnga and the Paratpara linga is bhava 
linga. lata llnga is again of two types. Acara llnga and 
cara llnga. Bhava llnga if of tW9 typef, Pras§da lingf 
md mahelingf . 


Sthula Sukshms Paratpirg 

istaiinga Pranaiinga Bhavalfnga 


Acara Guru Siva Cara Prasada Maha 

linga linga linga llnga linga linga 

What ia diksha ? 

That by which one gets Sivajnana and the bondage of 
karma perlehes, that is known as diksha ,4 

22. Saiva saruasva-Pramana parlcheda > (by Kotayya SasttI}. 
page 85, 2nd psra 

23. Siddhanta Sikhamani, 6 paricheda. 

24. S. Sikhamani, 6 parlcheda, 1 1 sioka* 

diyate ea sivajnanam kliyatepara bandanam 
yasmadatah samakhyata dikshetiyam vicasha naih 

This diksha is of three vedadiksha and kriyadiksha. 

sa diksha trividha prokta sivagama visaradaih 
vedha rupa kriyarupa mantra rupa ca tapasah 

That diksha which Is acquired by the grace of the guru and 
with the "hasta mastaka samyoga" Is vedha diksha 2j 

guroraloka matrena hasta mastaka samyogatah 
yah sivatva samaveso vedha diksheti sa mata 

The upadesa of Siva pancakshari is mantra diksha and 
that diksha given with the materials like panca kalasa, Hem- 
Skunds etc. is kriya diksha.2g 

mantra diksheti sa prokta mantra mantropa desini 
kundamandaiikopeta kriya dikshs kriyottara 
in other words the whole of "sambhavldiksha" is of 
ihrM stages. That diksha which Is attained, by the guru 
performing "Hastamastaka samyoga" to the slaya is Vedha 
Diksha. Uttering the sacred mantra in the ears of Sisya is 
mantradiksha and finally giving the linga In the hand of 
sisya Is kriyadiksha. 

anava malatrita karana 

dehabhlmana kalita prajna sanjnlkasya 

tanmala dhwamsa karana sapta bhedapanna 

vedhe dikshva bhava linga dharanam 

maya malas'ita sukhma sarirabhimana 

kalita taijasabhidhasya tanmala 

dhwamsa karanam sapta bhedapanna 

manudishaya pranalinga dharanam 
25. S. Sikhamanl, 6 paricheda, 13 sloka. 
28. S. Sikhamanl, 6 paricheda, 14 sloka. 

hikuflkl Somanatha 133 

What (8 Sambhavi diksha ? 

The upadesa of pencakshara mantra and the lingadha- 
rana to the alsya by the proper guru is known as sambhavi- 
diksha. This is the diksha which is practised for the final 
salvation 27 

vratametat pasupatam tasmacarenmuushurna 

According to Saivagamas this diksha is performed to 
relieve oneself from the cycle of births and deaths "ananta 
janma marana karanatpara sancayat mumukshuracareddiksh- 
am sambhavipasa kruianim" 

This diksha Is of two varlelies-vaidika and fantrika. 
The dwijas perform by the vaidika method and others by tha 
tantrika method ^g 

valdiks tanfrlka ceti vratame tsdvldha bhavei 
dwfjanam valdikam prokta manyesam !antrik«m ammtam 

This vrafe Includes all the three dlkshei eftcordlng to 
candrajnarjottara-vedha manv kMyabhljna dlkshatraya susob- 
hrulam Bhasma rudraksha erl lingadharanatmaka muttimam. 
aambhava vrata metaddhi veda sastrekacoditah 

In reference to the subject under discussion, Somana- 
tha In his work has not given any systematic approach to 
linga dharana but goeson dlscuessing its greatness. He 
givee a detailed account of the different gods wrho wore 
this and in return given the respective positions, Vianu 
worshipped the IndranilamanI linga and achieved visnutva ,, 

27. Kaiagnl rudropanlsad 

28. Karanottara divyegama. 

29. S. Bhasya, 4th chap, last para. 

184 Smt M, Pmgdtvl 

Indranllanisyam lingam visnuh pujvate sada 
vlsnutvam praptavan tana 

Tha aame point is discussed by Siddhanta Silchamanl.,^ 
Further Somanetha did not give any pariiculara about samb- 
havl diksha and only dealt with its greatness and the good 
results one would get by performing it and also the bad 
results by Its non-performance. It looks as if Somanaiha 
la threatening the common man to perform it, without expl. 
alning Its symbolic, religious significance to him. 

7th. 8th chapters 

PalkurikI discusses In these chapters, the greatness of 
prasada. padadeka and virasaiva. For this purpose he again 
takes quotations from Brahmanda, aditya puranas, and 
Ramayana alse. This again indicates his scholarship in all 
these sacred texts and also his scholarship In ayurveda 
upon which he focuases his light. He has explained that 
ail rituala eantribute greatly towards preserving excellent 
phyiieal health apart from the religious sanctity accruing 
fram them. 

The religious principles and rituals have alvyays bean 
known to preserve good health. It is a general practice 
among the staunch saivaites to keep "Bharitam" and other 
ritual principles even today, which gives a regularity to their 
feod habits. These ritual principles also help and eradicate 
disease. If one takes pure food In the form of prasada, 
good health Is assured. If we take the "tirtha" by putting 
the "tulasLj, maredu lisavea, diseases like esthama will be 

30- S. SikhamanI, 6 paricheda, 6B,56 slekas. 

31. (a) Bhavaprakasa _ Madhyama Khanda, al 51, p.267. 

lb) Vastugunaprekasika - page 813 and 617 and 484 & 

(c) Vastugunadipika, page 349. 

falkurlkl Somanatha 165 

cured, es han been asserted by the ayurvedic texts. 

Maredu, tulasi and coconut water are used in padodalca. 
if such padodaka Is talcen in with the mantra-" akala mrutyu 
haranam, sarva vyadhi vinasanam, sarva papopa iamanam, 
samfahoh padodakam subhsm," and with a divine thought 
then the effect Is supremely beneficial. 

According to Ayurveda even cow dung has medicinal 
properties. It has the power to resist even radio active 
rays. Further some ayurveda medicines should be adminU 
stered by the touch of the body, some should be smelt and 
some should be taken orally to nave the required effect. 
By taking the medicines in the prescribed manner, the ultra 
microscopic becteria, harmful to the body will be killed. 
The maredu, tulasi leaves and the "tummi" flowere with 
which Lord Siva is worshlppen possess this medicinal value. 
So also the Rudraksha. Samanatha quotes this in the last 
paragraph of the seventh chapter-vaidya sastre-nirmalyam 
salilam prasya devadevasya suiinah ksbava, kusta jwariswa* 
sair mucyate kitbisairapi abhisska jaiam praptah pibennityam 
dine dine sula kustadyapasmara jwaranam bhesajam priye.... 

As Lord Siva In the form of Rudra Is mentioned as 
"bhisak" in the RIgveda, Somanatha takes thai aspect of 
Lord SIva and stresses that even the "tirtha" and "nirmalya'' 
of the Lord have got the power to cure diseasea, 

dth chapter 

In this chapter the greatness of "annam" Is dlseulsed 
by Somanatha. According to some we should nottako 
SIvanirmalya." But Somanatha feels that It is applicable 
only to non-salvaltss and not the saivaites. This Is truo 
from the ritual point ef view. According to Somanatha we 
•hould take nfrmalya with bhaktl and not with "Itbha." 

168 Smt, M. Omadeiv 

As we should not take anything belonglRg to Lord S!va, we 
do not find any type of prasada in Saiva temples except 
bllwa patra, vibhuti and others. 

Next Somanatha gives an account of Candrayana vrata jj 
vataswaddfiarlta parnesu i(umbhitudakam parnayoli 
palasa padma patrasu bhuktva candrayanam caret 

One wlio eats in peapal, aswattha, leaves or tummi, 
palasa, lotus leaf is eligible for doing candrayana vrata. 
By tfiis vacana pramana, the nirmalya attains sanctity. 

This Candrayana vrata is almost like the Ramzan fast 
of the musllms; as both are based on the movement of moon 
or candra. 

The Saivaites who perform this vrate their food depen- 
ding on the waning and the waxing of the moon. As the 
moon waxes they increase their food and take complete 
feod on Purnima. ^nd from purnlma decrease in the puan« 
tity as the moon wanes and do not take anything on the 
amavasya. The muslims on the contrary take their food be- 
fore dawn and fast the whole day and take food in the night 
when the moon is again sighted. This is known as Roza. 

The reason why Somanatha wrote about this Candra- 
yana vrata is only to indicate that a Candrayana vrata or 
hundred yajnes are equal to siva nirmalya-nirmalyam deva 
devasya candrayana satadhwaram tasmat padedakam peya 
prasadannamca bhujyalfam.3} 

His scholarship In grammar Is seen from his argurr.ent 
In the statement-34 atha bhasane-karmani nistayam anna- 

32. S. Bhasya. page 32. 

33. S.B., page 36. 

Palkur/ki Somanatha 167 

miti rupa nfspannam yena maransm ne vidyate tadamrutam 
rudrena parameswarena annamamrtam tasmat karunat deva 
vai bhokiuh kamuh." 

Somanatha here discusses the formation of annam and 
goes on to describe cosmology and takes the quotation 
from Mahopsnisad to prove it that the whole creation is 
done by Lord Siva-apa eva sasarjadou which means water 
is Rudra or water is Siva swarupa. Srti-apalva fdag sarva 
viswa bhutanyapah pranavapah, pasav aporannamapo mrtm- 
apah samradapo viradspah sweradapasca dag syapo jyotigs- 
yapah"-which indicates that all the watera have come down 
flowing only after wahing IHis feet. Thus Somanatha goei 
further and describes that the five elements water earth, 
akasa, agni, vayu, tire nothing but Lord Siva. 

Somanatha gives a detailed account of Prasada which 
Is of two types. 

Prasada trividham proktamosuddham, siddham, prasi* 
suddham, praslddham-They are suddha. siddha and prasl- 
ddha. That which is given to the linga is suddha. That 
Affered to and given by care is siddha and that prasada 
given by a guru is prasiddha. 

Food becomes prasada, only when the devotee heart 
about it with the ears, sees with the eyes smells with the 
nose touches with the hand and then eats it-. All thit 
should be done with the "iswarabhavana" i.e. lord himself 
exercising all these actions. By ofterrng the food to lord 
- Siva through the panca j'nanendriyas it becomes prasada. 

The food cooked In a pot Is only plain food. That 
cooked with purity becomes annam that offered to god 
becomea prasada. So with "samskara" a thlng'a valua 
Qhangea and thua w« gat tha lodasa aamskaraa which ara 

168 Smt a. Omadtvl 

meant for purifying the human being at different stages of 
his life. Thus "annam" because prasada and "jalam" 
becomes "tirtha". 

So finally wa can conclude that if anything is talcen 
with the "prasada bhavana" then we can establish "linga- 
nga samarasya " 

10th chapter 

in this chapter Psikuriici tries to establish the greatness 
of Jangams- Jangama is ctherwise known as Viramahesw- 

In Saiva philosophy, l\^aheswara always occupies a 
great place. According to the quotation "Viswadhiico rudro 
maharsihih" (swataswatara srtival<ya). Lord Siva is the 
highest deity in the whoia universe. One who firmly 
believes In this statement is called Maheswara 3^ 

. "viswasmadadnlico rudro viswanugraha karakah 
iti yasya sthira buddhih savai maheswara smrtah 

The qualities of VIramaheswara are discussed In detail In 
the saivaite religious book, Siddhanta Sikhamanl which Is 
considered to be the best authentic religious work for the 
Saivaites. According to Sivacarya, a Maheswara is more 
or like the sthita prainsjj of Bhagavadglta who does not 
have any attachment for worldly things and whose mind 
is always cencentrated on the Lord Siva 3^ 

34. S. Sikhamanl, 10th chap, sloka 8. 

35. prajahati yada kamah sarvan partka rhanogatan 
atmanyevatmana tustah sthita prajnesta docya te 

Bhag«vadgita, li chap.. 65 sloka. 
96 S^. Silchamsnl, 10th chsp, si.U. 

Palkorlkl Somanathu fgg 

ssbda sparsadi sukha lesetu nispruhah 
slvanande samutkanto vira maheswara smrteh 

One who is not Interested in women, studies those sas:ras 
which give the knowledge about Siva, is interested in est* 
ablishing the supremacy of Lord Siva, does not have any 
prejudice, ego, Is always satisfied and whose mind is alw- 
ays concentrated on Siva is considered to be VIramahesw- 

Such a maheswara whose mind is always on Siva, 
whose speech is always about Siva, whose hands are meant 
for worshipping Siva, is considered to be Rudra himself 3^ 

linge yasya mano iinam llnga stuti paraca vak 
lingarcana parou hastou sa rudro natra samsayah 

Lord Siva always shines In the hearts af these maheswaraa 
who are always satisfied and conquer their karma with 

nityam sanrosa yuktanam jnana nirdhuta karmanam 
maheswara namantastho vibhati parameswareh 

According to Somanatha, "maheswararcara" is always gre- 
ater than "Iswararcana," as sivayogi is considered to be 
"•akshat Siva" himself, according to Siddhanta Sikhamanl.j, 

sivayogi sivah sakshacchivah jnana mahodadhlh 
yat kinclddiyate tismai taddanam para mardhikam 

In this chapter Somanatha gives the description of the 
two varieties of "ilngasiva" i.e. cara and acara and to prove 

37. S. Sikhamani, lOth chap , 27 aloka. 

38. S.S., 10th chap . 72 aloka. 
38. S.S., eth chap., 88 sioki. 

170 i>nit. M. Omadevi 

his statsmsnt, takes quofations fiom sivadharma sastra- 
sivadharma sastre lings dvayam samal<hyetam car&cara mev- 
aca caram pratiti vikhyata acaram parthivadikam priti yukto 
maheswarah acare msntra samekara sthavara jangamam 

Most 0? Somarsaiha's theory is based on Siddhants Sik- 
hamanl end is evident by tha way he takes tha thoughts 
from the work. Tha description of division of iinga is also 
described (n Sfddhanta SikhamanI 4^ 

lingam ca dwividham proktam 


ajangame yatha bhaktir jangame ca tatha smrta 

acara mantra samskaraliinge vasati sankarah 
sada ka'am vasatyava cara lings maheswarah 

This means that the Iinga is of two kinds, the "stationary" 
and the "moving". The stationary Iinga Is the one made 
of mud stona and whirh does not move, while the cara 
Iinga is none other than jangama in whom Siva himself lives. 
He Is only the Sivayogi. Somanatha In a saralamkara^, 
asserts the greetness of tha Jangama-that Sivabhakta or 
Jangama is greater than any being. 

Somsn&tha's statement that a Jangama even if he is 
low enough to eat dog's meat, still he is bear to Lord Siva, 
shows how he is influenced by Basaveswara in this thought 

41 . S S., 9th chap . 60 sloka. 

42. S.Sikhamanl, ath paricheda, 62 sloka. 

43. uttarattarmutkarso vastunah sara mucyate 

— Sahltyadarpana, 10th chap., page 63J 

PalkUTiki Somanalha ^ y ^ 

who also confirms, "even if one safs dog's meat if he is a 
devotee, then he is supposed to be one who belongs to the 
higher cas^e 44 

Somanatha feels that by insulting Jsngsma, the sthav- 
era beoomoes useless-Jangamasya avemanena sthavaram 
nisphalam bhavst. 

which thought is again based on Bdsaveswara philosophy. 

"Those who worship the stone snalce drive away the 
iiying one. Those who request the tinga to est drive away 
the hungry Jangama Will they set satisfaction, by washing 
the llnga, if the Jangama dies of hunger." 

All this clearly confirms that he is in touch with Basa- 
veswara's worl<s and has thoroughly studied Saivd wofks 
nice those of Siddhanta Sikhamani, frem which he has 
drawn the basic principles to develop and establish his the- 

In this chapter Somanatha gives a description of the 
greatness of dana. One should avoid spatradana and sho- 
uld not stop doing dana. This idea has been borrowed by 
him from Bhartrhari,4g and also explains the greatness of 
. parDpakar847 which is again drawn on the thought of Bhar- 

Eleventh chapter 

In the eleventh chapter Somanatha discards the war* 
ship of other gods and tries to establish the supremacy of 

44. Basaveswara Vacana. 

45. Basaveswara Vacana. 

46. Bhartrhari Subhasltam artha paddhatl, s1»ka 35. 

47. Bhartharf Subhasltam, paropakari paddhati. 

172 ^z"'- ^- Omadwl 

Lord Siva. For this purpose ha takes authentic quotaticns 
from atharva vede, Brahmanda Purana and other sources. 
In this chapter he expla'ns the "loukikartha" of the names 
of the gods like Visnu, Narayana and the lilte. For exam- 
ple Narayana meana one who comes from water-adonara 
haro rudrah purusah krsna pingaiah tat suna voyanam vasya 
tena narayana smrtah) and apo nara iti proktah naravai nara 
sunavah tayadasyayanam tena prokto narayanam swayam). 

This means water is known as nara and narss are The 
destiny of these is narayana 43 

Thus he gives the technical meaning for the word 
Visnu aiso- 

vih pakshisnurgatiscaiva visunh 

vih means bird, nuh means gait, which means Visnu is the 
one whose gait is like that of a bird, Vasudeva means Vas- 
udeva's son ^ 

vasudevatmajastasmadwasudeva iti smrutah 

Thus giving the logical meaning to their names. Soma- 
natha declares that they are all subordinate gods and only 
Rudra is the supreme god For this purpose he takes quota- 
tions from various puranas and gives meanings according to 
his convenience This is a clear example of his scholarship. 
To dofend his argument he takes quotations from Hansopa<i 
nisad and says that one cannot concentrate on anything 
thing without form. That which hat form always perishes. 
But there is one thing which has both form and is formless 
and that is the Siva iinga as linga is Nirakara and linga 

48. Skanda Purana. 

43. S.Bhatya. 11th chap., psge 6S. 

Pflkmlkl Somanatha 173 

swarupa Is meant for dhyana. For proving the supremacy 
of Rudra further he gives the reasons accepting the supre« 
macy. He takes quotations from tatparya sangraha and 
ssys that salutations paid to other gods reach only Lord Siva 
as all the rivers flow into the sagara ^ 

Somanatha while describing the greatness of Lord Siva 
gives the description of different anjali mudras with which 
the lerd should b<j W5rshipp9d-"th9 lord whose head is 
dharma. whose yajna heart is visnu, whose feet are agni 
Is thus a celestial form and so should be worshippsd with 
anjail mudra. — yasmal namastischirodharma murdhansm 
brahmottarahanuryajno dhara visnu hridayag 

Somanatha exhibits his deep l<nowIedge in the Natya 
sastra by describing various mudras of worship for various 
gods,-.iilce Indra should be worshipped with Vsjrini mud'a, 
Brahma with Padmlni mudra, and Rudra with Anjali mudrg 
( ...sankinyoo kessyam rudram sirassyanjaii mudrayah} ,j 

This description clearly suggests that hehadathoro. 
ugh knowledge aboat Natya sastra as these mudras are 
found only in this work „ -Anjali hasrah-patakotala sams- 
listou yadi sonjali sanjnakah namaskaro sakararthe vinay- 
anjali risyate-when Pataka mudras in both the hands are 
joined together face to face then we get anjali mudra. 

Dakehadhwara Dhvamsa 

In the first chapter of Somanatha Bhasva, Palkurlkl 
describes the greatness of VIrabhadra. Virabhadra Is anot- 
her farm of Lord Siva who was incarnated during the time 

50. S.Bhasya, 12th chap, page 68. 

51. Somanatha Bhasya, t2thch8p, page 69. 

52. Bharatarnava. 11th chep, 67 slpka of Nandlkaswara. 

^j^ Smt M. Umadnvl 

of dakshadhvara dhvamsa. To prove this he has taken 
quotations from Slvapurana, Yajurveda and explained It- 
yajurvede-sa viro dai<8ha sadhanah vlyastambha rodaaiti 
daksha sadhanasya viro sa it! kah yah dyatva prlthvyou oya- 
atam bhayata,..and so on 53 

The story of dakshadhvara dhvamsa Is a symbolic Inte- 
rpretation of the athaistic practice of niriswata yagna Dak- 
sha performs a niriswara yajna where yajna symbolises the 
way of life and Daksha symbolises an orderly society and 
when it Is niriswara it means that when Lord Siva is not 
invited or worshipped. It will lose its sanctity and 8»t 
8 shaep's head. 

But Somanatha in his bhasya takes the puranic stofiea 
as It Is and tries to support hia theory with quotations from 
Yajurveda and other works. In the same manner ha takes 
quotations from Rudra Bhasya to establish the greatness of 
Rudra. These are all stories of Puranic lor© and there ra s 
particular chapter allotted by him for daksha -dhwara rtasana 
In his work. We can say that Somanatha has not given any 
lnterpret8tIor» or the symoblic slflnlficance of the puranle 
lore. He only nar-aled the atory for conveniently establls 
hlng his theory. 

Thirteenth chapter 

The significance of this chapter is-Som&natha in the 
beginning describes about himself, Lord Siva's two famous 
attendents are Nandi and <:hringt. If Basaveswsra is famo- 
us as the avatars of Nandi. Somanatha claims himself to be 
the avatara of Bhringl j4 After declaring the antecedents, 
Somanatha proceeds to explain the adverse effects of not 

E3. S Bhasya, 1st chap. 

54. S.Bhasya, 13th chap , 1st four lines. 

Mkurlkl Somanatha 178 

worshipping and accepting tiie supremacy of Lord Sivi, 
As an example to this he relates the story of dakshadhwara 
dhvamsa again In this chapter. 

As discussed previously In the same rhapter this story 
is a well i<nown one found in many puranas Mice Siva pura- 
XiB, Sl(anda purana, LInga purana, Siva rahasya and others. 
How dai<sha performs the yajna without inviting Lord Siva. 
'how Sati burnt herself and how Siva sent his attendant Vir- 
abhadra to destroy the dakshaysjna is a famiiiar story to 
every Indian. This story is described in Sivapurana.jj 

Somanatha took the above s»ory and explained in his 
work and supports his explanation with the quotations taken 
from puranas like Skanda, Lings' Siva rahasya and others 
and finally declares that any who insults Lord Siva will be 
punished like Daksha, that is with the head being cut off, 
any worship or puja without iswararcsna will become enot> 
her daksha yajna. 

Thus in this chapfer he givee the louklkartha of daksh* 
syjna but does not try to explain the symbolic thought behi< 
nd It, 

Before discussing In detail about this it should be und- 
erstood, how the application of signs on the body has come 
to practice. 


name adopted from ojibwa Indians for a complex of 
ideas and practices both ancient end widespread connecting 
men with animars-Paleolithic religion provides evidence of 
sense of kinship with animals and the cultures of primitive 
peoples In both ancient and modern world, at least contin- 

55. Sivapurana, 25-33, chapters. 

176 S'"*' ^' Omadm 

uance of this sense. Totemism is not a religion but it finds 
religious expression in widespread worship of animals. It 
has been especial ihfluential in social Institutions j^ 

Though applying the signs of gods on the body is acce- 
pted as 8 religious function still its origin is In the tribal 
custom according to the people who have conducted rese- 
arch on this subject. 

Totemism means for every tribe one Particular animal 
will be important. That animal will be thair surname lilce 
snake, hcrse and others which are the surnames of 
the tribes of the world They will not hunt the animal 
which represents their tribe, neither will they eat it. it Is 
a sacred animal for them and they have it painted on their 

When this is applied to Vaisnavism also the Vaisna- 
vaitas always have the signs of sankha, cakra and others Qn 
their body and this is as holy to them as vibhuti or rydralC' 
•ha is to the saivaites. 

Somanatha in these two chapters tries to ettablish the 
Inferiority of visnu~He interprets that Narayana is upasaka 
and sIva Is upasya. T« substantiate his arguments ha bri- 
ngs the quotations from ail authentic works like Kalvalyo- 
panisad, Athaivaveda, etc. The quotation "yacca kincit 
jagat sarvam" indicates the "jagadvyapakatva" of visnu 
but not the Jagatpatitva and Jagatpati is Lord Siva or Rudra 
and none else. 

Narayana is described as Purusa. That which descri- 
bes Narayana and praises him is purusa sukta- One who is 
worsh'pped by purusa is parameswara or Siva. So Soma- 

66, Dictionary of Comparative Religion, p. 121, edited by 
S.G.F. Brandon. 

Mkurfkl Somanttfia 177 

Iha takes the statements from Narayanopanlsed like "enora. 
aniyan," saheara sirsa, rtam satvam and other anuvaka vae« 
ana pramanas and probes that Vlsnu ia only an upasaks and 
Siva Is the upasya. 

Further Somanatha condemns the wearing of tankha, 
cskra, urdhva pundras on the body of the human being. 
According to him a brahmin becomes patita with dahana or 
tekhana.^ Dahana is the burning of the dead body. This 
tradition is not Prevalent among saivaites and iekhana mea* 
ns having the signs of sankhya, cakra and others on the 
body. Somanatha feels that this Is against the sastras and 
by doing this act a parson loses the right to perform yajna. 
Taking quotations from the agamas puranas, he condemns 
these valsnavalte religious signs 

Sixteenth ehspter 

In the sixteenth chapter the author gives an sccouni 
of the evolution of the universe or the cosmic evolution. 
To prove his ttstements he uses quotation from Mali«panl- 
lad and Siva Sankelpopanlsad while giving details about 
cosmic evolution be describes the golden egg which ia 
famous In Srutis, puranas and Upanisads. 

What Is the golden egg? 

The whole universe is symbolised in the golden egg 
out of which creation evolves. The earliest references of 
this gsiden egg can be seen as early as In the HIgveda 
where it Is described ae Hiranya garbiia.j, 

67. S. Bhasya, 16th chap, let para. 

68. Rlgveda, 10-21, 


17S Smt' A». Qm8(f99j 

HIranyagarbha samavartatagre bhutasya 
jatah patlreka asit 
es dadhara prfthivimdyamuteman kasmal 
devaya havisa vldhema 

In the beginning of the creation Maya has evolved In 
the form of golden egg which Is prakrtl. This Idea has 
been expended by the Manusmriti. According te Manustn- 
riti there was tamaa everywhere in the beginning. Then 
the god appeared end created the water and released the 
virya in It. This turned out to be the golden egg out of which 
emeged Brahma the creator.5, 

tadandanmabhavaddhaima sahasrasu same prabham 
tasmijnajale swayam brahma sarva loka pitamahah 

Somanatha takes this aspect, says that Lord Siva alone 
Is the cause of the creation, who released hia virya in the 
waters. This formed the golden egg out of which came 
out Brahma the creator. To prove this feet, accordlne to 
his siddhanta, Somanatha uses the quotatlens from Maho< 
panisad and other sources, giving more weight to his argu- 
ment. This clearly shows his scholarship, his ability in 
arguing, his Intelligence In using the sastras, Furanas and 
Upanlsads according to his theory, 

17 and 18 chapters 

in these chapters Somanatha tries to establish the supr- 
emacy of Lord Siva over other gods. He is the pasupati 
and all the individual gods are pasus and his subordinates. 
Somanatha here discards the theory of advaita. that is the 
entire universe is only Atman and there Is nothing elte exc- 
ept that Atman. As per Saktivislstadvaita, there are a num- 

59. Manusmriti, 1 at chapter, ^loHas 5,6,7,8,9- "~ 

Mkuflk Slemanatha mh 

ber of 80ul« or jivas. They are bnund by the pase that is 
prakrtl. So Iswara Is the Lord of Pafu and Pass. To prove 
this theory he takes quotations from tatparya ssngraha, 
mahlmnahava and others. According to him there Is bond> 
age to individual and not to the Lord who is above all. 

The omnipotent, omnipresent, ail-pervading Lord Siva 
Is known by many names, tsa is obtained from the root 
Is to rule (ya Iste sarvaiswaryavan vartate sa iswarah). He 
has endless fortune of eternal truth which other gods do 
not possess. So he is known as Iswara. Parameswara 
means-ya iswaresu samarthesu paramasrestah sa paremesw- 
arah-(He who is the best among Iswaras and most etficient 
among the efficient ones. Ha is known as Brahma as he 
creates the universe. He Is the Visnu as he is present eve- 
rywhere. He is the rudra as he punishes the wicked and 
troubles them, he is the Stva as he is the auspicious and 
l« known as Akshara as he has no destruetion-ysh ssrvR 
masnats sarsti na vinatyati tadaksharam. 

in the vedle literature the names of Brahma, VI«nu, 
and Meheswara are given to the same supreme Lord accor- 
ding t« the work dene by him, Ihat Is constriuction, msln- 
tenenance or final destruction of the univerte. But gradua- 
ally in course of time these gradually developed into three 
Individual gods and have given rise to religions like Saivi- 
sm, Valsnavism based on different faiths. Thus the forml- 
ess vedic god is given a definte form. Thus Lord Siva with 
his spouse, children, capital, and pramatha ganas have 
come Into existence. The same thing has happened to Visnu 
also. Thus the theory of the existence of many gods has 
developed from the time of the Vedas and the Upanisads 
and has become firmly established by the time of the pura- 
nas. A$ e sweet maker jnpk©$ different sweets wHh th9 

180 ^'^^- ^- Omadivl 

aame sugar according to the taste of the children and the 
children according to their Interest In a particular sweet, 
claim that it is the best, so also people following different 
faiths srarted proclaiming that their God Is the supreme sne. 

The eighteenth chapter of Somanathe Bhasya which 
deals with Dvimurti and trimurti refutation, is mainly based 
on this stddhanta. Somanatha discarded the famous quota- 
tion "sivaya visnu rupaya, visnvaya siva rupaya" as an Idea 
which is commonly believed and as being purely imaginery 
and not a fact. He agreed with the existence of Biahma, 
Visnu and Maheswara and tries to prove the supremacy of 
Lord Siva over others. For this purpose he interpreted 
come mantras in this chapter as the basis of his Siddhanta. 
Thus he says that in Kallka Khanda, Siva killed Visnu'a 
incarnation Kurma, and removed the tusk of Varaha, anet* 
her incarnation of Lord Visnu ^ Kaiike Khande .. kurmam 
samhrtya garvltam; tadangam bhusanatvena dharayamssg 

Thus in this whole chapter he deals with different man- 
tras In order to establish the supremacy of Lord Siva. He 
takes the quotation from Ya]urveda-Viswadhlk« rudro maha- 
rsih viswam narayana deva miti viswadhiko rudrah-which 
Indicates that narsyana is the universe ene greater than the 
universe is Rudra, thereby confirming the suprimacy of Lord 
Siva. Whatever may be his philosophy, his scholarahip 
and his ability to take suitable quotations from various texts 
to suit his siddhanta is noteworthy. 

ISth chapter 

In this chapter Somanatha discusses about the begin- 
ning of the universe and also discards the astamurti vada. 

SC^. S.R., pa9« 97. 19th_ph»pfer, 

Palkurfkl Somanatha J81 

Cosmology of creation is first dealt in Bigveda in Basadiya 
sulctB-the hymn of creation Next It is described or explai- 
ned In taittariyopanisad, Vedantasara, tatvakaumudi and 
other piiilosophic works. Salva siddhanta also discusses 
the question-weicii la the main cause far creation-nimltta 
karana or upadana karana. 

Somanatlia says that prakrti is upadana and Siva is 
nim'tta and finally he says that Lord Siva is the creator 
of the Astamurtis which are the various forms of Lard Siva 
himself. He says they are not his various but only his 

20tfi chapter 

In this chapter Somanatha condemns karmavada. Jiva 
gets tha celestial world by performing the yajnas like jyoti- 
stoma and othersH>va is the karta-ths question whether 
karta follows karma or the karma foliowa the karta-It fa 
alwjya a controversial question. Somanatha here discusset 
this basic question and condemns purvamimamsa and kar« 


This was put fortii by Jaiminl. According te him kw* 
ma is of three kinds-kamya, nitya and naimittika. Accor- 
ding to purvamimamsa the body gets Its ferm due to Its 
karma alone. The followers of Purvamimamsa are niriswa- 
ravadis»They do not believe in god as they feel that only 
karma determines the fate. They feel that the creation hat 
existed in this form and ft tias not been created.5t 

"na kadacit aniddasam jaget" 

61. Purvamtmsmu. 

182 Smt. M. Omadivi 

They do not accapt gods but accept sat>da-"sabda eve 
devata swarupam." 

Somanatha c^ndsmns this theory saying that man will 
not gat body only by karma because for ail the karmas there 
Is Lord-Karmadhipsti who is Lord Siva-Suppose a person 
steals then the theft will not change into chains to tie him. 
The ksrma of thsstaaiing itself will not give the punishment. 
To give the punishment there must be an adhikari. In the 
same manner Karma itself is not sarvadhikari to give the 
fruits of karma to jiva out Lord SIva-Thts is the argumant 
put forth by Somanatha. 

Thus Somanatha tries to establish that Lord Siva is om- 
nipotent and everything in the universe is Inferior to him. 

21st chapter 

Somanatha in this chapter gives the explanation of the 
definition and formation of Bhagavat sabda. He feels that 
except lord Siva, nobody should be addressed with the 
bhagavat sabda. Bhsgavan is the aadgunas-aiswarya, virya, 
yasas, jnana. and vairagya. These are also known as bha- 
gya. Ail these six define only lord Siva. So in this chap- 
ter Somanatha explains that these sadgunas mean only lord 
Siva and none else. According to this, iswara is "saguna" 
and "sakara". Thus here his school of thought opposes 
advaites. While describing the sadgunas he says that these 
SIX gunas are only known as sadgunas as the four castes are 
known as caturvarnas.^. 

In the last four chapters Somanatha used his scholar- 
ship to explain ce rtain virords. He achieved with these 
62. sadguna eve sadgunyam utha 

catvare varnaicaturvarnyam-** 
S.B, 2lst chap, p98« 106. 

Pelkutlkl Somanatha 183 

efforts, one single purpose. That Is he could establish 
that the adhid'svata mentioned In all vedes sastras, puranas, 
mantras and tantraa is none other than Lord Siva. In gaya- 
tri mantra there is "Biiarga sabda" gayatri is savitrumantra. 
So some consider surya as the adhistana daiva of gayarri 
mantra. But Snmanatha feels that opinion is wrong and 
proves ihst ti.e adhistana daiva of gayatri mantra Is lord 
Siva. To prove this he uses very powerful logic and proofs. 
In the twenty second chapter lord Siva has been described 
as the God who gives the fruits or all karmas. In a way 
this chapter is complementary to the previous chapter. 
According to, one reaches swarga or naraka 
according to his karma. But karma cannot give the fruit 
by Itseifr Some one should give him that punishment. Sa 
for ail the karmas, the giver of the fruit, that is "nimlttaka- 
rare" Is Parameswara. This has been established by Fai- 
kuriki. in Vayaviya samhita the goddess asks Lard Siva 
"which mantra is the best in kaiiyuga" to which aiva rep- 
lies, "it is pancakshari." This indicates that Somanatha 
through thorough the conversation of Visnu, devi and Brah- 
ma suggests that Siva is the supreme God. Any one wha 
belongs to one sect or other cannat discard the authenticity 
of these great works. So Somanatha takes quotations from 
tuese ^works which are pramanas to ail the religions and 
uses them in his Bhasya. on page 221 the writer qu»taa 
from Vayaviya sambhita where the goddess asks Mahaawara 
the 'means' f save people in Kaiiyuga wh« are detariwat- 
ing in nierals. 

6ayatri mantra is well known as concerned with Sutya. 
Savitar is othera Is well known as Surya. But Somanatha 
takes the word "Saviturvareayam" from the mantra and 
says that bharga is superior to Savitar. It la the known 
fact that Bharga sabda always suagests iswara, H«r» Bba- 

184 Smt. M. Umadeiv 

rga sabda Is a!so used in ms context. So Palkuriki puta 
fofth clearly that the "mantradhitthaRa dsva»a" is Bharga. 
To establish this fac ; he uses his gr&nimatlca! scholarship 
in interpreting the wcrdo. 

In the twenty ?ou.'!h gnd t-Mcnlv iihh chapters the two 
sabdas Rudra and Mahadeva h-vs been defined. These two 
sabdas have bean usiid ir. the Vedas. But the Vedariha is 
differeni. from the present day rr?an-ng, In Upanisada 
Siva sabda and Budra sabda have ^esn explained aa Parabr- 

"tvamagna rudro asuro maohdivah a pa rajana 
madhwarasya rudram hotaram tvamagna prathmo 
sngirars! rdavo devana msbhavsssivassakha 

In the beginning it is mantSoned that Agni's ferocious 
from is Rudra arid pacified form is Siva, if the ferocious 
agpi form becomes Rudra, the more sober from of agni bec- 
ame Siva. So for both the forms, agni is the base. Grad 
ually in course of time the ferocious Rudra sabda vanished 
and we have only the auspicious Siva sabda 

This Rudra sabda is first seen in Rigveda.^j 

aditya rudra vasavah (Rg. 3-8-8) 
•dityanam vasunam rudriyanam (Rg. 10) 
tvamagne vasurih rudram aditya uta (10-48>11) 

H«re Rudra sabda is used for surya agni and vasus. 

63. Rigveda. Sukta 45, mandak 1, anuvaka 9, page 642. 
ptrt 4. 

Palkarlkl Somanattm 18b 

In YsjurvedQ i:iso this it^bCQ and Siva sabda are used 
many times. 

"ludro routiJs sataS'., r>w.?uyafnano 
drava titi va, roda rodayaisrva. 

Rudra means "roi't?ste;navi'r,ii sf fccs m kfrotiti ft'drah'-one 
who sounds like thunder of \h& cloud?, elso" rodayaterva. 
terva-one who makes ihe enom>«s grcveS. Al! thesa mea- 
nings were given to Rudra seJ^da by yask3, but sayana gives 
a different definition to Rudra is the sno who removes duh- 
kha in the samsara, and givers the atma vidya to those who 
strive. for it. One who dispels the ajnana that is Rudra 
tabda. It also meant the one who is expressed in these 
two sabdas. Rudra and Mahadeva is the vedadusfana daiva. 
For this reason Semanatha discards the meaning of Rudra 
in terms of Agni and proves that Rudra means only iswara 
with the help of srutis, smrtis, puranas and agamas, as pra- 
manas. As a result the Vedas which have been interpreted 
by ail the religions according to their light, have been des-i 
cribad by Somanatha in terms of Slvtz-Siva Is the lord of 
the Vedas. Thus it Is a powerful aspect from the religious 
point af view because ail the branches of Hindu religion 
accept the authority of the Vadas and if Siva is proved aa 
the "adhisthana daiva" of Vedas then every religion hat to 
accept him Irrespective of It being Vaisnavlsm or any other 
branch of Hindu religion. 

In the same manner the IVIahadeva sabda is also inter- 
preted. This sabda is used in Atharva veda and Yajurveda. 
So Somanatha proves with the help of sastras as pramanas* 
At the end of this chapter the writer tries to establish "aca* 
rya tambandh." In both Salvism and Vaisnavlsm this acarya 
•ambandha hat been given great imparlance. This tuggattt 
tbit tba qufu it greater than God. Even Baiamwwa puti 

180 ^'"'- M. Umadevi 

forih the same thought that "Siva sarana"64 is greater than 
Lord Siva The resemblance which is found in Visistadvaita 
leads to the resemblance even in their method of "upasana". 
in Saivism greatness of the upasana of the guru linga end 
Jangama has teen well described 

The Bha?ya with the description of tha greatness of 
guru Palkurik! belongs to the "guru parampara". So it 
has been suggested indirectly through this work that Bhas- 
yakarta Somanatha is gieater than god Siva and hence wor- 
thy enough to be worshipped. 

$4, BMWvetwara Vacans, 

Chapter VII 

Somantha's Scholarship 

Somanatha Is a veiy great scholar who has mastered 
all the branches of learning. There is net a sing'e techni- 
cal work or sastra or veda which remains untouched by him. 
His muitlfaced scholarship is most evidant in the Somanatha 
bhasya. in this woric he quotes amply from Vedas, tha 
Upanisads, the Puranas the Agamas and the Sastras. Thus 
Somanatha Bhasya is liica a mirror which reflects his schoU 
arship. He quotes from the following texts In his chapters, 


1. ayamma haste bhagavanayamme bhagavatlarah 

(4th ch.. p.17) 

2. tavasriye maruto marjayanta rudrayatte 

janima carucltram hrdayam yadvisnoh paramamdhyaya> 

5th ch. (22 p } 

3. tryam bakam yajamahe sugandhitn pusti vardhanam 
urvaruka miva bandhanat mrtyormushiyamamrtat 

5th (p.23} 

4. maruto bahvabhasa mamanant! 

12th ch (p.69) 

6. tavasriye maruto marjayatam rudra yatte 
14th ch. (p.86) 
apavrjo sarabhaya rsibandhave 
18th (98) 

18th (101) 

188 Smt. M. Omatfwi 


1. sa v!ro dakshassdhanah vivastsmbha 
rodasiti tannoviro an'aMksha megho 'tl 

5 St (4th p) 

2. madhysmdinam savanam maheswsro devata 

2rd CO) 

3. yaterudra sfva tanura ghora papa kasini 

4th (17) 

4 rudra yatte janima caru citra 

4th (18) 

5. ayam somah kapardinemrtam varsapate 

8th (32) 

6. namaste arutyayata nnmo rudra yarayate 

12th (70) 

7. namahparamayaca parataraya ca namah 

14th (83) 

8. viswadhiko rudro maharsih vfswam 
narayanam devamiti viawadhfko rudrah 

18th (95) 
d. mahadevaya triyambakaya tripurantakayetl 
25th (119) 

Atharva Veda 

1. agni riti bhasma vayu riti baasma lalamiti 
bhaama sthalmit! bhasma 

2nd (It) 

2. tat parambrahmetl sa eko rudrassa isasaa 
bhagavan sa maheswara ssa mahadeva 

13th (83) 

3. yo brahmanam vidadhe putra magnejaitm 

16th (88) 

Mktirlkt Soman»a§ 189 


1 . say&cn tavasam sada sivo devatati 

2nd (10) 

2. tapatca te japasca tetyapakramya 
karmadhlpataye namah 

22nd (109) 


1. Jabalopanisad 

1. sady4jatatprithvi tasyah nivrti tasyah 

2nd (9) 

2. aa asa bhasma jyetih 9a esa bhasma jyotih 

2nd (11) 

2. Sivaaankalpopaniaad 

andam hiranya madhye samudram 
rudrasya viryatpadhamam babhuva 
andadvi$nu brahma jata vadasca tanma 
manah sIva sankalpamastu 

16th (90) 

3. Kalaqnirudropaniaad 

adha kalegnl rudram bhagavantam 
2nd (10) 

4. Brhadaranyakopati'aad 

abhayam yai janam p'apnotiti tasya sfsu 
.... samstuyante 

12th (69) 

5. Svetawataropanisad 

manastokena mantrena mantritam bhasma doarayet 
2nd (11) 

6. Mundakopaniaad 

nirmalyamena aada bhashayet ..,na saha bhunja tlti 

190 Smt. M. Umadtvi 

7. Brahmabindupanisad 

omkara ratha maruhya visntm krtvacca aarathim 
brahmaloka padanvesi rudraradhana tafparsh 
5th (23) 

8. Mahopanisad 

1, apa eva sasarjadou tanu viryamapasjst Itl 
apanarana roruda iti jala mapl sfva jata miti 

8th (34) 

2. a pa eva sasarjadou tanu virya mapa s»jat,... 
aou varna mabhavaccanda 

17th (90) 

9. Kaivalyopanisad 

dhyatva munirgacchati bhotayonim samasta sakthim 
tamasah paras 'aditi 

18th (95) 

10« Narayanepanisad 

omnnamassivayati aafarudriya madhyags 
namafsivayeti gayatfi mantrah 

22nd (110) 


1. Saivagama 

purananam pramananca.„.]danlntu nirmalyanupabhogena 
badhakaiva maha 

8th (32) 

2. Bhimagama 
sarvatirthesu yat punyam 

sarva sajnesu yatphalam tat pha'am 
koti gunitam bhasma snanannassmsayah 
2nd (12) 

3. Karanagama 

sapta kot! mahamantra upamantra anekasah 
panoakshare praiiyente punastatra vinlrgatah 
22nd (111) 

Palkurlkl Somanatha 101 

4. Makutapama < 

ugro sitvam mahadava mahadevsm 
mahatmanam bhaje karunfkottamam.... 
mahadevo maheswarah 

25th (120) 


1. Manava Purane 

bhasmajyotirbhavetyeva sivaranyam 
nahi samsayah 

2nd (11 p) 
rudraksham dharayan papam kurvannapica manavah 
sarvam tarati papmanam 

3rd (16) 
ayudhossarva cakradyourna dahecca kadacana 
l&th (88) 

%. Skanda Purana 

ye rudro lokodavatlrya rudrah manusya 
maaritya jagaddhi taya 

1«t (6) 

asucidravya samsparsastvayamapya euclrbhavat.,.. 

8th (32) 
prasada manpa devasya bhuktum tat kllbisam bhavet 
nirmalyann bhaktya dharyam dwijatlbhih 

8th (38) 
visnu sanjnahya samkhyata hya samkhyata pftamahah 
asamkhyatassurendrasca nitva eko maheswarah 

11th (63) 
madanga sweda aambhutou brahma narayana v!mou 

161h (90) 
anena saddrsam japyam nasti nastisrtou smrtou 

Igth (90) 

192 S"**- ^- Cfmatf§9J 

anena saddrsam japyam nastf nastlsrtou amrtou 
esa pancakshari vidya parvasrti giro gata 
upamantra anekasah panca»:share praiiyante 
18th (96) 

3. Parasara Purana 

satvamanyat parityajya s!vs ava sivenkarah 

nth (63) 
nadaha ye dwijasresto nadaheccakrapurva kaih 

15th (88) 

4. Brahmanda Purana 

vipranam veda vidusam...kalmasa matsarnat 
naivedyam puratonyaptam kama-odbhava 

7th (28) 
avijnaya param bhavam dtvyam tatpara cnaheswaram 

18!h (98) 

§. Oaruda Purana 

abhava va tathavlpro iouklkagnaSstadaharet 
bhasma nalva prakurvita...8!va sprsat! yo dwijah 

6. Siva Purana 

nirmalya langhano doao dharanacca visasatah... 
na ca bhakahyet 

8th (30) 

7. Padma Purana 

asamarpya padam sambhoh bhunjeta khadita pat!ca 
8th (38) 

8. Kurtna Purana 

trlpundram brahmano vidwsn manasapf na lamghayet 
2nd (13) 

9. Aditya Purana 

padou prashalya devasya atidhesca gurostadha^ 
7th (29) 

Pelkuflkl Somanatha 193 

•udrasya vedadhyayana magraja grahanam tatha 

8th (31) 
eka evati yo rudra aarva vadesu gfyata 
tasya prasada lassna 

8th (49) 

rudra ava tada aakshadbrahmana brahma bhavath.... 
brahmano rudra ava hi 

11th (66) 
umayasahlto dassoma ityucyata budhaih... 
vai srutih 

t6th (90) 

10. Linga Purana 

bana linga care iohe ratna linge swayam bhuvl..., 
krte bhavet 

8th (49) 

^akshnamga bhgvo brahma vamataca janardanah 

16tn (80) 
iithapl vahniryajnaaea vajra panlssael pstlh... 
iawaram tervi bhutanamltl 
yaselnatl hi aaatrartha maearya atana cocyata 

25th (123) 
Vayaviya Samhita 

avakasa masasanam bhutanam aamprayacchati 

19th (102) 

Vatuia tantra 

dvadasatn vira bhadrakamiti 

1«t (4) 
dharayedyantu hastana Ilngakaram sivam sada 
tasya haste sthitam siddha 

4th (18) 


\%4 S^^- ^- Omadtvt 


tudha misranca sankfrnam trividham 
sivs pujanam suddhantu linga tanmatram.,., 
4th (20) 


pramadha yra^araih pHvasura mukhyaussUedhritam 
7th (28) 


kadacidisapadambu nirmaiyam paramesituh 
pavanam pannsgasena nipitam punya karanam 
8th (39) 

Jabata sruti 

rudraksha dharanam haste vakshasyapica tnastak^.... 

mucysto sarvg papebhyo 

3fd (10) 

Valdya sastra 

nirmatyam aalliam prasya dsva devgsya tullnah..., 

Natya sastra 

7th (29) 

ya vajrlnl bhavati sankara aankhini ya mudra 
tatha kamalini 

12th (69) 

Gautama smrtl 

uttama lohadandena..„tapatyeva na samsayah 
15th (87) 

Tatparya sangraha 

1. tvannama rupa guna varnana labdha varna ... 
vadudaharana mityaha 

Ut (5) 

P9lkurlkl Somanatha 195 

2. nanlswara bhav!tumarhatl vl$w8 metad bahifwaram,... 

17th (92) 

3. brahman! panca tana vastava mantra rupa 

J 8th (95) 

4. agn!m prakrtya khaiu rudra padam 

25th (116) 
Sivadharma sastra 

1. bhasma snanam jalasnanasamkhyeya ounadhikam.... 
snana magneya macaret 

2nd (12) 

2> Indranliamayam ilngam vfsnuh pujayate sada 
visnutvam praptavan tana 

2nd (12) 
lingsdwaya sama khyatam caram ca acaramava c^ 
csram pratiti vikhyata acaram parthivadikam 
10th (§7) 

Sethayana aakha 

5. nitya kamya bhedena Hngareanam dwMdsmltyihi 

6th (22) 
^. adhata mahadavasya padodaka vibhim vyamylsyamah 

7th (28) 

guruvattava visesa 

tith (64) 

Mahimnah stotra 

tvamarka atvam soma stvamasi pavanastva hutavaha 
mahesannaparo devo mahlmnannaparastavah 
25th (123) 

With all the evidence given above, it Is impeselMe to 
assess the scholarship af Semanatha. Be affirms in his 

181 Smt M. UmadB9l 

work in Telugu, Panditsradhya Caritra, that he Is a scholar 
in ail tha four vedas (nail palukuriki somanafhumdanaga 
volayuvadanu. jaturveda paragunda). Hence he had equally 
■cholarship In both Telugu besides Sanskrit. His great 
works Panditsradhya Caritra, Basavapurana stand as exam> 
pies. These two works are the authentic sources for the 
life of the two great rsltaious preachers. Basaveswara and 
Mallikar}una pandlta. Somanatha is a scholar in many 
other languages like Tamil, MarathI, Kannada, etc. Hie 
work Vrsadhipa sataka stands as an excellent example of his 
proficiency in all the languages. The Vrsadhipa Sataka 
Is mainly written in Telugu though It contains poems In 
many of the other languages mentioned. The poems given 
belpw 9tand gs example for his echolarshlp. 

••ntkrit poem 
khyata yasah prapurita jagattritayaya namo namo 
maha pataka sutakaghna padapadma yugaya namo nsmo 
samudyota vrtaya'e yanucu nutsukatan 
branatitu samyamlvrata saranyamayya basava 

Kannada poem 
hasuliya yanna rakshi suvu dara madennavanlta venduma 
nnlsuvudu nimmadingersou nimma praaadi yenimme kot- 

kasigati yancu bhakti ninu gannada bhasa bhasa nutintu 
svasana saranya mayya basava 

MarathI poem 

deva vara tumhica gurudeva mhanu ne tarl tumhicago 
savatu ra famhica tuma saca prasada ami krpakara 
ylvagadayatancu numyincedanu nare 
* bhasa de va vinu taryalla basava 

i^fkikwlk Slomanaiha Id7 


srI guruUnga murti savisesa mahejwala kirti satkrtlya 
dyoga kala prapurti yavadhuta punarbhava jurt! patlta 
bhyagata samsritarti kavi pandjta gayaka cakravarti deva 
gati nive maku basava basava vrsadhlpa 

Somanatha decfarea in tha thirteenth chapter of hit 
Somanatha Bhasya that he is the incarnaiion of Bhrlngl. 
Even his ardent fan and follower Pldaparti Somanatha 

"asadrsa tanmahsmahima ma ravi taraka mal 
celanga sri basava puranamun, sakala bhakta 
prthvisthalikin janinaga bhrlngi santasamuna 
butte balkuriki somapurlvara somanathudai" 

Even before Pidaparti Somanatha many foliAwers •! 
Virasaivism considered him to be an avatara of Bhrngl. 
Besides this title many Karnataka acholars mention that h* 
has titles like Anyavadakelahala, "tattvavidya kaiapa, kavita- 
aara etc.} 

,bhringi rita gotra sambhava 
jangama padarcana visarada vllasa 
tsangita sastra parage 
gangotpati prakara kavya dhurim 

His knowledge In tha Sanglta sastra is In ample exfde< 
nee in ths third chapter of his work in Telugu Basave Purana 
and also the Parvata Prakarana of his other Telugu work 
Panditaradhya Caritra. 

1. Pldaparti Somanatha's Padya Basava Purana avatarika. 

2. Palkuriki Somanatha Kavi, p.234, by Bandaru Tammayya. 

3. Pidaparti Sotnsnatba'f Padya Basava purana. 

198 Smt. M. OmadevI 

Ail the works of Somanatha are his creative worlcs and 
are not translation or adaptation of any previous work. He 
has taken some basic principles from literature to meuld hie 
work perfectly. This is cleaiiy sesn in Somanatha Bhasya 
where ha follows Si-fdhanta SIkhamani to build his indivi- 
dual work In a more technical menner. Thus, Somanatha 
is greatly influenced by the author of Siddhanta Sikhamanl. 
He in turn has influenced many of later Tetngu and Karna- 
taka authors. 

The author of Sumsti Sataks, Baddena of 1260-1320 
A.D., follows Semanatha in some instances in his work. 

kasugaya drencina gayagugaka 
patani pandagunayya bhrantl bondinam 

SumatI Sataka 

kasugaya garci cucina 

masalaka yadi vagaru gaka madhuram baguna 

Mahakavi Srinatha, another great Telugu wiiter of 15th 
century imitates Somanatha in hia work Hara Vilasa. 

Somanatha's Basava Purana 
isu manta budida nosala businanu 
masalaka kondanta marulettenanuta 
teilamanucu raju mellanagucu 
leltavo basavayya sIva marul gonte 

Srinatha's Haraviiase 

avaginjanta budi mainaladi konlna 

veladi gummadi kayanta verrivuttu 

gata kata yetlu tana buddhi kata gallya 

nisuvu jampanga dalaceno nl magandu 
4. Basavapurana, page 98. * 

Palkurlkl Somanama ^3^ 

Pidaparti Somanatha wrote his Padyabasava Purana on 
tha basis of Palkuriki's Basava Purana. Not only Pidaparti 
Somanatha but many of the later writers followed him in 
writing their worics. These fslloing writers are some of 
them who wrote thier worics imitating Palkuriki. 

Writer Work 

Pociraju Virakavi Vibhuti Rudraksha mahatmya 

Oubala ksvi Sivarahasya Khandam 

Srigirl iVIaliikarjunaswami Somavara mahatmya 

Siddhavogi Yogiswara viiasa 

Parvata mantri Singana Rudraksha maitatmyam 

Swami Virabhadra Kavi Simantini katha 

Baccu Siddha kavi Mari Basava Purana 

Cittarv Gangadhara kavi Kolanupaka Maeatmya 

Among the Karnataka poats who followed Palkuriki, 
most prominent Is the author of "udbhata Kavya." Somaraju 
Later Bhimakavi of 1369 A D. translated his Basava Purana 
into Kannada. Palkuriki's Panditaradhya Caritra was trans- 
lated into Sanskrit by Qururaja Kavi of the period 1430 A,0. 
This work was later translated into Kannada under the title 
"Aradhy a Caritra" by NUakantacarya of 1485 A.D. Tontada 
Slddhalinga Kavi of 1560 A.D. did an exposition on Paiku- 
liki Somanatha under the title Palkriki Someswara Purana. 
Many of later Virasaiva writers of Karnataka looked on Som- 
anatha as their guru and guide, worshipped and wera hit 
ardent followers. Some of them are : 

Gubbi Mallanarya ISIS A.O. Vlrasatvamruta Purana 

Caturmukha hommarusu 1500 A D. Revana Siddha Purana 
Virvpaksha Pandita Chenna Basava Purana 

Basavallnga Kavi SIvadhikya Purana 

Stnta Vira Oeaiica Slvalinga Caritra 

200 Smt M. OmadevI 

God According to Somanatha 

According ta Somanatha God Is not attrSbuteless. His 
siddhanta is based on tiie Brahma autre Bhasya of Srikanta 
Sivacarya. That Sriltanta is a contemporary of Sankaracarya 
is evident from the "Sankaradigvljayam". Ramanujacarya'a 
"Sfibhasya" aiso condemns Sankara's advaita to establish 
Visisladaita. Theso people will not accept the statement 
"Jaganmlthya Brahma Satyam". According to Sankara, 
God is neither masculine nor faminlne nor neutral. But 
according to Somanatha God is masculine. According to 
Sankara God is Nirguna, nirvisesa and jnana rupa. According 
to Scmanatha Brhman is Saguna, Savlsesa and Jnata. 
Sankara's Brahman Is guna rahltar Somanatha's Brahman 
is "Ananta Kalyanamurti," Vrsabhavahana, Umapati, Siva, 
"Karmadhipati," and karma phalapradata. This he discus- 
sea in the twenty second chapter of hia Somanatha Bhaaya. 
Though ha gave little importance to cosmology in Somana- 
tha Bhasya, he propounds it In the last chapters of hia work. 

In the sixteenth chapter of Somanatha Bhasya, the 
Intricate cosmology are discussed. According to the author. 
Lord Siva Is the supreme one and Is the father of the other 
Gods like Brahma and Visnu. 

jBrahma VIsnvadI devatanam paramsswaro 
janako iti sampadayamah 

To substantiate this atatamant be uses the quatatlont 
from different upanlsads and Puranaa. 

indam hiranyo madhye samudrsm rudrasya vlvyatpadha> 
mam bkbhuva Andor visnovbrahma jata vedasca tanme 
manah sIva sankalpa mastu. 

fjf, leth chapttr, S.Bhasya, 

^alkurlki Somanatha 201 

Further ha says that lord Siva is the cause of Vlsnu, 
Brahma, Frthvi, akasa, vayu and others. 

gumaya sahito devassoma Uyucyate bvdhafh 
sa «va karanam nanyo visnorapica srtih 
matinanca divah prthlvya agne suryasya 

astamurte namaslubhya mabhyama jaiadodarah 

sastva triloka srstyardean srjasyasta tanussubhah 

....dyava prthivyo rindraguyo rvigata 

stuya masya ca varunasya sasankasya janito 


Everything In the universe like prthvi and other celest- 
tisl bodies function according to the will and order of Lord 
Siva. Somanatha holds the view that only Siva is the great 
one other gods stand in an inferior position compared to 
Him, Only Saivism is great and other religions cannot 
compete with it at all. This is his sincere attitude 
towards Saivism and Lord Siva. This feeling made him 
condemn the "dwlmurtlvada" and "trimurtlvada" and est- 
ablish the supremacy of L«rd Sivs in Somanatha Bhasya, 
The eighteenth chapter of Somanatha Bhasya mainly centres 
raund this. 

The abuses used by Somanatha 

Somanatha Is a staunch Virasalvaite devotee. In spre^ 
ading the religion he gaes to the antrems extent of abusing 
the people who do not follow the ritual practices of this 
religion, for he feels that for any religion It Is the rituals 
which form the fundamental basis and hence bring one 

6. S.Bhatya, 19th chapter. 

202 ^^'- ^- Omeda 

closer to the religion. That a staunch VIrasaivalte ehould 
follow its rituals systematically, is the main srgument of 
Somanaika He dees not spare any who acts against these 
terets arjd reacSs with harshness and hatred towards any 
lapse. In spreading the reiigiQn and in mal<lng ths people 
practise these rituals be goes to the extent of abu5ip.g the 
people who do no? follow the ritual practices of Virasaivism. 
This is clearly eesn in his indictment against people who 
do not wear rudJcksha and vibhuti. He feels that the fore- 
head of a person without vibhuti has no Identity ^ "dhJg 
bhasma rahitsm pi'aiam." That village is useless without a 
Sivalaya-"dhi3srtmama-sivalayam," that life without "isw- 
arscana" is a waste-'dhiganisarcanam janma " Those who 
do not use the bhasma are p8titas-"srutya vidhiyate yasma- 
ttatyagi patito bhavet." 

Somanatha tries to establish ths greatnsss and the 
merits of wearing bhasma. rudrskeha and linga with examp- 
les, not to human beings but to gods like visnu, Indra and 
others who wore the particular lingas and got their visnutva 
and Indralva.g dsvsirmuni ggnaisiatha dhuta iripundrako 
civyaih rudrakshaisca vibhusitah ssubhe satatam vlsnurbha- 
sma digbhatanulatah tripuridrankita sarvango jata mandala 

In his view, a person even if he eats dog's meat drinka 
alcohol, one who lives with a woman of low caste, will 
still be considered pure if he wears the rudraksha g 

khadan mansap! ban madyam 
sangacchan nnantrajapi sadyo bhavati 
putatma rudraksha sivasi syate 

7. S.Bhasya, 2nd chap. 

8. S.Bhasya, 2nd chap. 
8. S.Bhasya, 3rd chap. 

Palkwikl Somanatha 203 

If one does not wear these, his darsona and sparsana Is 

tripundram rudraksha dharana hiaasca ye santi 
tena darsaniyah na sambhasyah 

This clearly shows his deep ddvotion and f.u!th for the. 
religion and the concerned ritust prectices. He feels that 
If a psrson einics low enough to eat dog's meat still he is 
considered pure ii he wears a linga (S B. HI chap }, but 
for one who discards the llnga even the food he talces will 
become impura as dog's meat. Thus he spares none and 
curses them who fail In observing the rituals. He feels that 
for a common man there is not mush use explaining things 
In a delicate and subtle mann'^r. So as a staunch believer 
of Virasaivism he advocates a rig!d adherence to these ritual 
practices and attempts to force on the common man. He 
realises that people afe afraid o! curses and thereby tries 
to Instil fear in them Sorranatha cannot be blamed for 
this extreme fanatic reiigicus outlock because of the prevai- 
ling religious conditions of his time, when evsn a highly 
educated person showed dt^ep emotional devotion 
towards his religion. Thus it wss not strange then Soman- 
atha who feels that his life, work and activities are only 
meant for the spread of this religion, was unaccommodating. 
To the present day generation It may appear peculiar but 
if one understands that religious era, it was a common 
feature, to find this type of devotion in the people. The 
people were religiously emotional. More over Somanatha 
is not just a common, ordinary follower of Virasaivism but 
a religious preacher, who has spent all his life for the spread 
of this religion. All his actions, teachings, writings ara 
all meant to achieve thia single aim and purpose-<^pread of 
Virasaivism and its rituals 4mong tho common maMoii 

204 Smt. M. Omadavl 

Somanatha asserts that those people who do not 
worship the linga should not be seen or spoken to,j(, 

ityadi veda vakyairsrcaniyam paranneswara manabhyarcya 
ya yakriyah kecsnakurvanti tena darsaniya ns santbhasyah 

This he reiterates repeatadly in his work. 

Somanatha's Vyakarana 

That Somanatha is a graat authority on Vyakaran is evi- 
dent from the way he sspiains the meaning of certain terms 
grammatically. While explanlng the meanings of certain 
terms relating to god, he usase these grammatical sutras 
of Panlnl and Vararuc! In the first chapter he tries to esta- 
blish that Nandiswara or Vrtabha has undoubtedly came 
down to earth in the form of Basava. He uses the gramm- 
atical sutra to prove how vrsabha has changed to Basava.jj 

idanim kali/uge siva bhakti-muddhartum basavabhideyena 
vrsabha yeva jstat vrssbhasya basava yaksha nama 
katvam kasmat karanat asiditi 
....vrkaraaya bakaradeso bhavati 

"vabayo rabheda' iif. "eesossa" it! sutrat sakarasya sa ka 
ra deso bhavati "vah pavarga" iti vararucya sutrat baka- 
rasya, vakaradeso bhavati etat vrsabhskshatadadbhavat bas- 
ava Iti nama vakshyate sakshat vrsabhesavatara Ityarthah 

Further he explains, 

"pasum patiti pasupah vrsabaah tat pasupatyakshara 
tryam tad bhavat basava ityakshara tryam sambhavati 
kutala kuddala tamarasadi padesu tattadyaksharanam, 
tattadvarga trtiyaksharadeso bhavati tadhaiva vrsabha 

iO. S.Baasya, 5th chap. 
n. S.Bhsiya, latchap. 

Palkurlkl Somanatha 205 

namadyakshara pakarasya bakaradesb^Wvat! "sesossa" 
iti vararuci sutrat pakarasya vakaradeso bhavati 
tadbhave ata eva pasupatyekshara tryasya basavetyaksha- 

Thus with raference to tha above It is clearly establi- 
shed that vrsabha, the avatara of Nandlswara has c«me 
to earth in the form of Basava, which is proved on the 
basis of his grammatical skill. 

In the same manner he, while praising the greatness 
"Bhagavan" analyses the "bhagavat" sabda-u 

aiswarasya samagrasya yasasassriyah jnana 
valragya yoscaiva sannam bhaga itI smrtah 
bhagavan tatah bhagavaniti kirn bhagavacchabdah 
pujya vacakah ayame bhagavattarah tara sabdoti- 
sayarthe vartate atisayane taratamatiti 
Butrena iti 

Somintha'i Manlpravala 

Somanatha Is the first Telugu writer to use the tttan!- 
pravala language In his work Vrsadhlpa Sataks The origin 
of this manlpravala type of literature Is In Malayalam, tha 
first work being "Lilatliakam" ,3 Manlpravala is a mixture 
of many languages. This type of literary technique Is first 
put forth by Palkuriki In Te'ugu literature. In Vrsadhlpa 
Sataka the poet's love for other tanguages is undoubtedly 
seen. It contains a stanza in each of Sanskrit, Tamil, Kann- 
ada, and Marathi languages. 

Somanatha is also the first writer to write his works 
In Janu Telugu. He states that Janu Telugu Is more 

12. S.Bhasya, 4th chap. 

13. History of Malayalam Literature, p. 25. Sahltya Academy, 
2nd edition, 1977. 

206 Smt m. OmsdBVi 

charming than the style which fs interwoven with high sou- 
nding prose and poetry passages. So the verses composed 
in Janu Telugu occurlng in Vrsadhipa satalta contain purer 
Tefugu words than the "tatsamas" and other words. Som- 
snathe who is an ardent lover of the native element has 
revolted against the marga style of writing adopted by his 

The same type of revolutionary trend is seen In him 
while writing his Telugu dwipada kavya, Basava Purana 
where he has written the whole work in dwipada metre. 
He discarded the marga style. He desired to adopt a speech 
which could be understood by his expression "sarva sama- 
nyambu" only lends support ta this, i^e is the first poet 
in Telugu who adopted his dwipada chsndas for his msjsr 
works in Telugu Basava Purana and Panditaradhya Caritra. 
He said,, J "urutara gadya padyaktula kante sarasamai para- 
gina Janu tenugu carcimpaga sarva samanya maguta kurcsda 
dwipadalu kerkedira" which means the msrgs style conslstfi 
gadya and psdya comblnstioD that is campu whereas his 
d«si style consists of dwipada style which Is vary popular 
and the language Is also close to the native tongue, that la 
Janu tenugu. The same thought is expressed in his other 
telugu composition Panditaradhya Carltra aiso-,g srudhya 
gadya padyadi prabandha-purita samskrta bhuyista racana 
manuga sarva samanyambu gami-janu Tenugu visesamu 

which means "sanskrit works with gadya and padya combi- 
nation are not popular in Andhradesa, so i am adopting pure 
native style or Janu telugu. This shows his ardent love and 
affection and commitment towards desi and Janu Telugu. 

14. Paikuriki Somanatha. by DrC.RSarma, pages 18-21. 

15. Basava Purana, pages 165-172. 

1$. Panditaradhya Caritra, Dikaha Prakarana, 18th page. 

Palkurfk/ Somanatha 207 

He is the champion of popular dasi stvia and people's 
language. Now the qnestion arises naturally why did he 
write Somanatha Bhasya and ether works in Sanskrit? 

Somanatha has written the Framanlka Bhasya in Sans- 
krit. The resson for this is because other bhasyas are writ- 
ten in Sanskrit to establish his thought, religion and philoso- 
phy among the scholars, he wrote Somanatha Bhasya and 
some other works In Sanskrit For p-opagaMng <he religion 
among the common masses, he wrote the Telugu works in 
Janu Telugu. Somanatha is not against Sanskrit as some 
critics felt. It Is clear that his affection for nativity and the 
spread of his religion, he used this medium of desi style and 
no other reason can be attributed to it. 

It should be understood that ether factors are also res- 
ponsible for this action. By this time, already other south 
Indian languages like Tamil, end Kannada have started using 
the desi styles. This was not prevalent only in Telugu. 
So realizing that propagation of any religion Is more effee< 
tive in tha native iangusge, he started writing literary works 
in deti style. It was not due to any hatred towards Sans- 
krit. In this context the words of the famous critic. Sri 
Vaturi Prabhakara Sastri may be noted i^-'ln the other South 
Indian languages like Tamil, many desi works have been 
written. The South Indians, specially Tamillans, Yaisnava- 
ites or Selveites wrote the wcfks in the native iangusge 
with the dast candas. in these languages there were not 
many workiii but were more than the Telugu works. From 
the beginnfrg many cf the Telugu works were produced as 
translations to the Sanskrit puranas, we could net find ori- 
ginal desi wo'ks in Telugu. As our predecessors were more 
Interested in the aryan stories, Sanskrit candas and the lan- 

17. Basava Furana. Foreword, 55-65 pages,j 

208 Smt. M. Omadtvl 

0U8ge equivalent to Sanskrit, used desi vrttas and candas 
and curbed the uss of the desi language. For this reasen 
we do not find the Telugu touch in our Prabandhas. To 
some extent Semanatha is the foremost writer who wrote 
the Frabandhas In Teiugu with the desi influence, He has 
written the des! stories with the desi candas oriented dwipa* 
das. That is the reason why we find much local influense 
In his works." 

Somanatha and Music 

Falkurlkl Somanatha is not only a distinguished scho- 
lar but an extraordinary poet with an excellent knowledge of 
different branches of learning. The various references to 
music available in his Telugu work, Panditaradhya Caritra 
reflect his interest in It For example, Somanatha mentions 
the 32 types of veenaa, 15 types of strings, 22 types of 
gatis or sounds. 14 types of racanas or compositions, 40 
types of musieai compositlsns. He gives the different vari. 
«tiM of taias, auddha talas^ misra taias etc. Ai r»s«rda 
abhfnaya ar dance he lists out 70 mairt types ef Abhinaya, 
64 hand gestures, 108 karanas and 26 eye gestures. 

Thus it Is a clear preof that Palkuriki ts undoubtedly a 
distinguished scholar and an eninent poet In Telugu and 
Sanskrit. He is the first Telugu poet who gave literary 
flavour to religious themes. Both his Telugu works Basava 
purana and Panditaradhya Caritra stand as the best example 
for this aspect. It it also significant that both works written 
In Telugu are the earliest biographical poems in Telugu com- 
posed In honour of the two eminent personarlties of our 
country-Basaveswara and Mailikarjuna Pandita.,, 

Twelth century witnessed the emergence sf Bhaktl- 
cenired Saivism, that is, VirasaWIsm which denounced the 
19, Poikurlkl Semanatha by Dr.C.R.Sarma. 

Mkoftkl Somanatha 209 

authority of Vedat. This new sect reached its zenith both 
In Andhra and Karnataka States, Its founder Basavesw* 
ara himself Is said to hava given up Vedic practices ilka 
upanayana. Attracted by Its bread outlook and devotional 
aplrit several people from different castes became VIrasalvl- 
tee. They came to be known as Jangamas. Even though 
this religion preached by Basaveswara drew support from 
the Telugus, l\iilallikarjuna Pandita of Draksharama, a belie- 
ver in Vedas had effected a significant change In it. As a 
result the nen-Vedic VIrasalvism had acquired Vedic sane- 
tlon and those Brahmins in Telugu region who followed this 
faith came to be known as Aradhyas. One can find In Palk< 
uriki, a coordinator of these two schools of Virasaivism-non 
Vedic and Vedic. Thus his Basavapurana celebrates the 
life and activities of Basaveswsra, the founder of non-ValdIc 
VIraaalvIsm while his another work In Telugu Panditaradhya 
Carltra glorifies the life of Rallikarjuna Pandita, the exponent 
•f Vsdio VIrasaivlsm. Both these works have become auth- 
tntto werki of th!i raltglen and Ntigion has baan haliad «f 
Iht fithsr •! yiraiilvt lltaretura In YaluoU'H 

Stmanathi ta a pool first and a graal eebtlar nasi. 
Thta la olaarly evident from other worka of the author. Aa 
Somanatha Bhasya la a technical book, It coold not reflect 
hie poetic telent In it. But it Is very much In evidence In 
his works In Telugu. He Is a writer with creative outlook 
and a keen observer of Nature. This is clearly observed In 
hie description of the Sriaella Parvata in Panditaradhya CarU 

Thna if we observe Somanatha'a life It Is glorious In 

19. Palkurlkl Somanatha by Dr. C.R. Sarma, Pages 10-13. 

20. Parvata Prakarana, Panditaradhya Carltra. 

210 ^''"' ^' Om§(t§9i 

more than ene Nway. His devotional heart la filled with 
happlneta while observing nature. HIa emotional actiona 
Indicate his deep unquestioning love for his religion. One 
finds a type of revolutionary tendency In his writings which 
led him to Initiate new techniques in the literary field. 
Besides, one finds a devotee's heart reflected In his worics, 
HIa great devotion and faith towards Siva and Saivism are 
mirrored in whatever he has written. 

Semanatha fa a towering figure. He Is a PItadhlpatI, 
yugaicarta. The poets consider him aa one of the greatest 
among them. The scholars consider him as a great scholar. 
Critics respect him as a fearless critic. Sastrajnas think 
that he is well versed In ail the sastras. Saivaiies worship 
him as the Incarnation of Bhring!. Kannadlgas consider 
him aa the poet and preacher who has Introduced their Basa- 
veswara and his life to the world, in fact ail these facts 
ere true with regards to Somanalha. He Is a "unique crea- 
lien" of Lord Siva, SuQh a one Is "na bhuto na bh^vls 



Andhra Kavula Caritra 

K.Viresalingam} new editlonj K.Nagetwara rao; 1925. 

Andhra Sataka Sahltya Vikasamu 
Dr. K.Gopaiakrishnarao; 1976. 

Udaharana Vangmaya Caritra 

Nidadavolu Vankatarao; Vljayabhaskara Fubllcatttni 
Hyderabad, 1868. 

Kalyana Vijayamu 

Dr. Mudigonda Sivapraaad; Viraaaiva Samajam, Bydera- 
bad, 1979, 

Palkuriki Somanathudu 

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Fanditaradhya Caritra 

faikurikl Stmanatha; Andhra Granthamala, Madraa, 

Fadya Basava Furana 
FidapartI Somanatha 

Falkuriki SomanathunI Laghukriuiu 

Bandaru Tammayya; Sri B. Chandrasekherayya; Devar- 
apall!, 1962. 

Frakpascima fattva Sastra Caritra 

tr. Saripain Viswanatha Saatry; Andhra Saraawala 
Farishad, 1962. 

212 Smt. M. OmadevI 

Basava Puranatnu 

Palkuriki Somanatha; VavUla Bamasastry & Sons, 

Basaveswara Vacanalu-Sangraha Samiksha 

Dr. Badaia Rama?ya; Taralabalu Jaaadguru vidya Sam* 
stha. 1&76. 

Bhava Frekasika 

ed. Bhava Misra; M. Venkatasastry. 1959. 

Vastuguna Prakasika 

Pandit Vituri Vasudavasastry, Addepalli 8 Co., 1938. 

Vastuguna Dipika 

Yarra Subbarayudu; Sri Rama Book Depot. 1133, 

VIrasalva Darsanamu 

Bandaru Tammayya; Swadhrma Granthamala, Kakinada, 

Satyartha Prakasika 

Dayananda Saraswatij tr. A. Somanatha Rao, Arya 
Satnaj, Hyderabad 

Sivatattva Saramu 

Mallikarjuna Pandita, Krishna Patrika Presa, 1968. 

Satva Sarvatvamu 

Mudigonda Kotayya Sastry, Warangal. 

SIvarahasya Bodhini 

Basava Purana Pithlka Vimarsanaoiu. 

Somanathu deppatf vadu 

Nelaturl Venkata Ramanayya; VavHIa Rama Saatry and 

Palkurik S/omanatha £13 



Satyabhamabhal Fandurang; Bombay, 1944. 


Purva Prajna Vfdya Fitham; Banaglora, 1981. 

Bhartrhari Subhasita Tritati 

Enugu Lakshmana Kavi; Anandasrama Grantharaina- 


Mandikeswara; ed. K. Vasudeva Sastry; Sri S.Gopalan, 
Tanjore Saratwati Serial No,74, 1954. 


Bamakrishna mutt; 1970. 


Palkuriki Somanathe; B. SIvamurty Sattry; Sarana 
Sahltya Karyaleya, Bangalore, 1952. 


ed. Kaslnatha Saatry, Mys«re, 1942. 


eight Upanlsads; tr. Gambhlranada; Advaltssrama, 

Kalvalya Sara 

B.B. Mallappa Varada, Shoiapur, 1907. 


laedl Vlmsottaraaatopanitad; Nirnaya Sagara Mudrant- 
laya, Bombay 


ed. Sri Kaslnatha Saatry; Kaslnatha Qranthamala, 
Mytore. 1851. 

214 ^'"f- M. Umadavl 


ed. Narayan Ramacarya; Safyabhamabhai Pandurang, 
Bombay, 1946. 


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Bhandarkar Oriental Research institute, Poona, 1940. 


ed. V.G. Apta; Anandasrama, Poena. 

Rigveda Samliita 

Udasina Sadguru Gyaneswara Jana Kalyana Nyasah; 
Tulael divas, D. Road, Bombay. 

Satapatha Brahmana 

ed. Satyavrata Sarma, Rajanvati, Calcutta. 


Udasina Sadguru Gyaneswara Jana Kalyana Nyaaat), 
Tulasi Nivas, D. Boad, Bombay. 

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Viswanatiia; ed. Durga Prasad Dwlvedi; Meharcand 
Laksiimana Oas, New Delhi. 

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SIvayogI Sivacarya; tr. iswara Satyanarayana Sarma; 
Sadhana Granthemala, Tenali 

SIvanubhava Sutra 

Muruga matii, Dharwar, 1958. 

Skanda Purana 

Jayacamaraja Granthamala, Bangalore Presta 1947. 

Salva Siddhanta 

•d. Dr. A.V. Oavastnapatf, Madras Unlverilty. 1966. 

f»IJtor/k/ Somanatha 8l5 

Semanaiha Bhasya 

Warangai Press, 1918. 

Siddhanta Sikhamani 

Sivayogi Sivacarya; ed. Kari Basava Sastry 

Siva Purana 

Jayacamarej'endra Grantharatnamaia; Camund eswarl 
Electric Press, Mysore, 1S45. 

Siva Maha Purana 

Nag Publishers; Jawahar Nagar, New Delhi 

Srikara Bhasya 

Sripati Pandita; ed. Hayavadanarao, Bartgalore. 1945. 

Tattva Prakasika 

ed Nanjundaradhya, Mysore. 

Vrsedhipa Sataka 

Palkurlkl Somanatha; Sri Nirmala Saiva Sahiti 

Granthamala, Kaklnads 

Udasina Sadguru Gyanatwara Jana Kalyana Nyaseh/ 

Tulasi Nivas, D. Road. New Delhi 


Sri Basavsawara-A Commemoratiort Veiume 
Government of Mysore, 1967. 

Dictionary of Comparative Religion 

ed. S.G.P. Brandon 
History of Malayalam Literature 

Sahitya Academy; 2nd edition. 

Falkuriki Somanatha 
Dr. C.B. Sarma 

Director, Prasaranga, University of Mysore, Myaora 
University Press. Mysore. 

tid Smt. Ml Gaad§9i 

Essentials af VIrssalvIsm 

a.r. Mallappa Devaru; Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 
Bombay, 1073. 

A Handbook of Virasaivism 
Dr. S.C. Nandimath 


Basaveswara Vacana Sangrahe 

ed. Malwad S.S ; Pratibha Granthamale; Sahltya Aca- 
demy Paravage, Dharwar, 1963. 

Narada Bhaktl Sutre 

ed. TIrumalacarya, Bangalore, 1916. 

Sunya Sampadane 

Bhusamaramathe, Bavaru Suddha Ungeswara Maiam. 
Adoni, 1989 


Somanatha Bhasyam 

Oriental Manuicrlpi Library^ Andhra Pradesh, 

Budra Bhaaya 

Brahma VIdya Tirthe, Oriental Manuscript Library. 


Governmdnt Oriental Library, Madras. 


(I am here giving the meaning of certain symboiie 
expressions, technical terms and other details of Veera 
Salva Dharma). 

1. Details to the origin of Paochacharyas : 

Five faces of Lsrd Shiva : 'Sadyoja'haa', 'Vamadeva', 
'Aghora*, Tatpurusha", 'Eeshanava*. 

Colours of five faces : Green, Red. Skyblue, white and 

Directions of five faces ! East, South, West, Norfh, Pyrv§ 


Psnchaganadheesas originated from five faces i 

Renul<as, Oarukas. Qhsntakarnas, Vieuvatsrmas. 

Th«!r names in Kritayuga : fksk&hsra Shivseharye, Dwygi* 
Icihara Shivicherye, Trlyakshera Shivacharya, 
Chaturakshara Sbtva:!ha(vs Panchekshsra Shlvacharya. 

Tretayuga t Eicavaktra, Owivaktrs, Trivakta, Chaturvaktra, 

Dwapara : Ranuka,. Daruka, Ghantakarna, Dhenukarna, 
Viswakarna Shivacharyas. 

Kaliyuga : Revanacharya, Marulacharya, Ekoramacharya, 
Pandltaradhyacharya, Viswaradhyacharya. 

Places of their origin in four Yugas : Someswarailnga 
of Kolanupaka, SIddheswaralinga of Vatakshetra, Bhlmana- 
dhallnga of Draksharama, Maliikarjuna linga of Sudhakunda, 
VIswanadhalinga of Varanasi. 

Places of their Coronation : Rambhapurl, Ujjain, Blma> 
vatkedar, Srisailam, Srikshetra Kafj. 


Panchagotras : Veera, Nandl, BhrungI, Vrishabha, Skanda. 

Panchaautras : Ksnika, Deepta, Vijaya, Vatula, Prudgaeta> 

Panchaahakaa : Renuka, Daruka, Qhatakarna, Dhenukarna, 
Viawakarna shakes. 

Vedas | Ruk, Yajur, Sama, Adharva and Ajapa. 

Panchadandas : Ashwatha, Palasha, Venu, Nyagrodha and 

Panchakalashamula Dhatus : Haridwarnamaya, (or Raja> 
tha). Capper, Metal, Bronze, Gold. 

Panchavastras : Green, Red, Skyblue, White and Yellow. 
Panchamantraa : Prasada Panchaksharl, Mayapanch&k- 
aherl, Sukshma Panchaksharl, Sthgls Panchaksharl and Mula 

2, Prasadaniyama i The food that is served after aife'> 
ring to 'fshta Linga' should be eaten completely. 

3' Bharita : Tha food should be served only once. 

4. Pnratanas: Old Shiva Bhaktas or Nayanars iiko 
Bhakta Kannappa, Oeepakalida etc. 

5. Gaaapathy : Son of Lord Siva. His trunk aymbollsea 
Pranava (oom) Head, ears. Trunk, etc. symbolise five 
Clements. He Is Saraswathi. He is the supreme soul 
(KANAPATHY), and He Is the Supreme diety of 

6. Sharanam : Total Surrendering. 

7. DasaTadhanas : Dricravadhana, Drikpuja, Twagava« 
dliana, stuti, Manovyapthi, Sanuraga Manerchana, 
Gana Pranama, Gana Stuti, Ganaleelananda magnate 
and LInganimagnata. 

8. Bilwa : Symbolises Satwa, Rajas and Tames. 

9. Trishula : Symbollcas ichcha. Qnana and Shakti 


10. Tripurasora : Three bodies stula. Sukshma and 

11> Nataraja : The Cosmic dancer with five kriyas. They 
are srishtl, stiti, Laya, Thlrodhana and Anugraha. 

12. Parvathi : Chlchchakti of Lerd Shiva (She Is the 
Lakshmi in Valshnavism). 

13. Ganga : Symbolises the perlnneal life force (Bhudevi 
in Vaishnavism) and prakriti. 

14. Three eyes of Lord Siva : Surya, Chandra and Agni 
(The Inner consciousness). They symbolise - Ida 
Pingaia and Sushamna. 

15. Dwadasa Aradhyas : 1) Hara Datfa 

2) Bhatta Bhaskara 

3) Neelakanta (3 Acharyas); 

1) Udbhsta 

2) Koti Palya 

3} Vemana (3 Aradhyas); 

1) Rsvans 

2) Merula 

3) Ekor^ma (3 Siddhas); 

1) SripathI Pandita 

2} SIvalenka Manchana 

3) Mallikarjuna (3 Pandltas) 

Total : 12 


Rs. 6,400-00 Telugu University, Hyderabad. 

Rs. 2,000-00 His Holiness Sri Sivamurthl Sivacharya Tarda 
Balu Jsgatguru SIRIGERE) and V. V. Hostel, 
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Rs. 1.001-00 Siva Sri S. Chandrasekhar 

Rs. 501-00 Her Boliness Mate MaiiedevI (Bangalere) and 
Siva Sri, Parwatappa Korwar, S. Chenna 
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Gande Sri Sailam, A. Nagabhuihanam esq.) 
(All from Hyderabad.) 

Rs. 116-00 Siva Sri - IVI. Jagadeeswar, Pamula Kumara* 
•wami, V. Bssavi.aj, K. Nagabhushanam, 
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